Car exhaust: composition, influence on the human body
The impact of exhaust gases on humans
In the course of human development accompanied by the growth of population and consumer needs, development of light and especially heavy industry and vehicles, in the surrounding human atmosphere is a big release a variety of chemicals. Exhaust fumes from running vehicles account for about 90% of total contamination.
General characteristics exhaust
Car exhaust is a combination of two or three hundred chemical compounds that are considered to be quite harmful. They are obtained by the combustion of various automotive fuel and depart into the open atmosphere.
According to statistics, on average, one car emits per day about one kilogram of various toxic and carcinogenic substances. Moreover, such substances can accumulate and remain in the environment for up to 5 years. The exhaust gases bring obvious harm to human health, vegetation, animals, and soil and water resources.
Exhaust gases have the greatest negative impact on the body of people in the big cities, especially while in long hours of traffic jams, in the areas of highways and major road junctions.
When the physical and chemical characteristics of these air emissions exceed the allowable concentration, such exhaust gases have a significant negative impact on human health. At increased risk are drivers, especially those on buses and taxis, as well as people who very often are in many kilometers of traffic jams on the roads during rush hour traffic.
More harmful is the effect of cars, engines which run on diesel than on petrol or gas, produces a greater amount of soot.
Exhaust emissions are directly on the internal organs of respiration, and younger children far more than adults. This is because the highest concentration of emissions is at face level with young children.
The composition and volume of exhaust gases that pollute the atmosphere
The exhaust emissions of different fuels, may have such harmful elements:
- oxides of nitrogen and carbon;
- the dioxides of nitrogen and sulfur;
- sulfur dioxide;
- aromatic hydrocarbons;
- a certain amount of soot;
- different lead compounds;
- the suspended particles.
According to statistics, trucks and buses produce more exhaust gases than cars. This fact is directly related to the mode and volume of internal combustion engines of cars.
For example, passenger car gives per day, about 220 mg/m3 carbon monoxide, bus 230 mg/m3, and a small truck as much as 500 mg/m3. The car gives 45 mg/m3 of nitric oxide, a bus 18 mg/m3, and a small truck – 70 mg/m3. Also the bus, unlike the car constantly emits oxides of sulphur and carbon and also lead compounds.
It is important to remember that the exhaust from cars is almost 90% contamination of the total volume of air surrounding the man. One car only able to supply air to one kilogram of such harmful compounds.
The impact of exhaust gases on humans
Due to the content in exhaust gases of vehicles are harmful and even poisonous substances, as well as a constant action of these elements on human organs, they can cause the development of acute and chronic diseases.
For respiratory disease characterized by the following:
- allergic reactions;
- the formation of malignant tumors;
- inflammation of the Airways;
For cardiovascular system characteristic of such disease:
- respiratory disorders in the form of shortness of breath;
- the increase of the signs of angina;
- myocardial infarction;
- the viscosity of the blood, as a result, thrombosis, thromboembolism;
- oxygen starvation, the so-called tissue hypoxia.
For nerve cells is characterized by the development of such violations:
- General malaise;
- persistent drowsiness and sleep disturbance.
Chemical compounds that is in the composition of the exhaust gases, in particular heavy metals, are characterized by the ability to accumulate in the body. Thus begins the slagging of the organism with subsequent development of serious diseases.
The largest amount of toxins present in the exhaust gases when the engine is running at idle and at slower speeds. In these two modes is a bad fuel burnup and waste of unburned fuel components in quantity more than ten times the emissions standard vehicle mode.
The degree of effect on the human, the components of the exhaust gas can be divided into five groups:
- The first group includes low-toxic chemical elements of waste gas engine running. These include nitrogen compounds, hydrogen, water vapor, oxygen, carbon dioxide and other constituents of the atmosphere. Such substances are not directly harmful to human health, however, contribute to the adverse conditions of human existence, as have an effect on the composition of ambient air.
- The second group includes carbon monoxide, which is a strong poisonous substance. Be poisoned by carbon monoxide is possible with the engine running car in the garage with a tightly closed gates or when the machine is not turned off motor. Carbon monoxide causes oxygen starvation and, as a result, infringement of functions of all the internal systems of the human body. The degree of intoxication with carbon monoxide is determined by its concentration, time of action and the human immune system, which affects the substance. In mild poisoning your heart rate increases, there is a pulsation in the temples and dark eyes. For secondary poisoning is characterized drowsiness and unclear consciousness. Severe degree of poisoning gas with a concentration higher than 1% leads to confusion and, in exceptional cases, even fatal.
- The third group includes nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide contained in the exhaust gases of the vehicle. They are considered more toxic elements than carbon monoxide. Thus, nitrogen dioxide is heavier than air and spread along the floor, accumulates in the recesses and channels, and at high concentrations is very dangerous when a regular car service. Prolonged action of such gases a person can get asthma, pulmonary edema, chronic bronchitis, inflammation of the lining of the digestive system, heart failure and nervous disorders.
- The fourth group is the most numerous substances. This includes a variety of hydrocarbons, e.g., paraffinic alkanes, naphthenic Chiclana and certain aromatic benzenes. Such compounds is about 160 units. These substances are poisonous and are detrimental to the function of the cardiovascular system. In addition, hydrocarbons are carcinogenic and contribute to the emergence and growth of malignant tumors;
- In the fifth group consists of organic aldehydes, such as formaldehyde, acrolein and acetaldehyde. Such substances are also poisonous and are the products of fuel burn when the engine on the go or quiet at low loads if the flue gas temperature is low. The harmful effects of such compounds is expressed in irritation of mucous membranes, lesions of the internal respiratory organs and nerve cells.
- The sixth group includes carbon black and minor elements resulting from wear and internal deposits on the engine as well as adding aerosols and oils. Such particles do not have a direct negative impact on human health, but easily irritate the respiratory tract and collect on its surface harmful components.
The development of science and technology, which allow to improve the comfort of people’s lives, in addition to benefits, brings harm, such as exhaust gases from vehicles. Death from exhaust gases is uncommon and is considered to be the result of improper handling of the car.