Carbon monoxide: effects on the human body, antidote for poisoning

How carbon monoxide affects the human body, symptoms of poisoning

Carbon monoxide (co) is a chemical substance that causes acute poisoning. It is dangerous to health and life. The negative impact of carbon monoxide on the human body based on the transformation of the composition of blood and the defeat of the respiratory system. The consequences of the poisoning is very severe, often fatal.

Physical and chemical properties of co (carbon monoxide)

Carbon monoxide is a colorless gaseous substance without peculiar smell, density lighter than air. Flammable.

The substance is very toxic. As it has no smell. Fatal cases of poisoning are recorded often. WITH formed during combustion of any material and concentrated in the air. Once in the body, the substance enters into the relationship with hemoglobin and forms a strong complex – carboxyhemoglobin. Such a connection violates the physiological function of the blood, blocks the transport of oxygen to the tissues. The result is oxygen starvation violated the biochemical processes.

When a person inhales contaminated air, carbon monoxide reacts with hemoglobin faster than oxygen. With each breath, the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin increases.

Signs of poisoning appear when replacement of hemoglobin:

  • 20% – easy degree of intoxication;
  • 30% – the poisoning of moderate severity;
  • 40-50 % – loss of consciousness;
  • 60-70% is a lethal dose.

The higher the co content in the air, the faster it accumulates in the body. The lethal dose of 0.1 % in inspired air (the lethal outcome occurs within one hour). Carbon monoxide is a toxic substance, which belongs to the 2nd and 3rd class of hazard (medium and high). Indoor signs of intoxication occur more rapidly than in the open countryside. Able physical activity time human toxicity reduces, in the rest, the degree of poisoning increases slowly. This is because the load on the body increases the breathing rate and lung capacity.

The conditions under which a person can be poisoned by carbon monoxide

Most often, co poisoning can sometimes be indoors at the household fires. The risk group also includes residents of private houses with gas or furnace heating. Properly designed system of ventilation (air exchange, draft in the chimney) contributes to the accumulation of substances in the room.

In industrial purposes, carbon monoxide is used for the synthesis of organic compounds. Failure and gross violation of safety instructions risk of poisoning among the employees increases.

Carbon monoxide is a component of car exhausts. Therefore, the poisoning substance is in the garage with poor ventilation, poor ventilation in long tunnels with a long stay near the highways and congested roads.

Home to possible poisoning when opening the oven dampers, the leakage of illuminating gas, which is used in heating systems of individual buildings. There were cases of intoxication in the abuse of hookah.

Symptoms of human poisoning by carbon monoxide

The action of carbon monoxide on the human body depends on its concentration in the air. Mild lesions of the body quickly moves into the middle and is manifested by dyspnea and headache. First the lack of oxygen to the nervous system. Signs of defeat:

  • pain in the cranial box pulsating nature, knock in temples, dizziness, nausea not associated with food intake, occasional vomiting;
  • disorders of vision, lacrimation;
  • mental instability, irritability, emotional outbursts, loss of coordination, especially fine motor skills, the instability of memory, auditory and visual hallucinations;
  • decreased mental and physical activity, shortness of breath, chest pain at any movement;
  • the heart rate increases, blood pressure rises slightly;
  • the skin and mucous membranes become bright scarlet.

Carbon monoxide poisoning during pregnancy, even at low concentrations leads to the death of the embryo in the early stages and fetus in the 2nd and 3rd trimester. Easy degree of intoxication is deadly for people with severe diseases of the heart and blood vessels.

In severe poisoning, the victim develops drowsiness, apathy, constant noise in the ears, headaches become more intense. Because of the defeat of the nasal mucosa appears plentiful runny nose. Nausea increases, vomiting becomes more frequent. The motor muscles are affected by paralysis in the background of ataxia – destabilization of the coherence of physical activity. Breathing becomes frequent and superficial. Man is conscious, but it is confused.

The effects of carbon monoxide on the human body at high concentrations is characterized by such symptoms, which indicates very severe poisoning:

  • fainting, unconsciousness;
  • respiration periodic, cyclical, rare, superficial breaths gradually become more frequent and deep;
  • heart rhythms oppressed, the pulse is weak;
  • convulsions, spasms;
  • pupils react poorly to light;
  • sudden bluish discoloration of the skin;
  • involuntary urination and uncontrolled defecation;
  • the absence of reflexes, profound coma;
  • stop breathing and heartbeat, death.

First aid

Before the ambulance is important to the provision of first aid. The door at the entrance to the room open wide, propping up any heavy object so that it is not closed. You should then stop the flow of carbon monoxide – close the damper on the stove, turn off the heating system. Then open all the Windows in the room. The air flow will instantly reduce the concentration of carbon monoxide.

The victim as quickly as possible to stand on the street, free from hindering clothing, cover with warm blanket or plaid. If the weather is clear, the person is better positioned to the sun and not in shade. Direct sunlight destroys the carboxyhemoglobin.

If the victim is not breathing, start resuscitation – massaging the heart and artificial respiration.

Medical assistance for poisoning FROM

At the ambulance of the patient connected to an oxygen pillow. Supply of O2 needs to be continuous and powerful for 3 hours. An emergency physician is required to enter the person azizol the antidote for poisoning by carbon monoxide.

Pharmacological action of the drug:


  • prevents the formation of carboxyhemoglobin complex;
  • promotes binding of oxygen with hemoglobin;
  • stabilize the delivery of oxygen to tissue;
  • reduces toxicity of the body;
  • biotransformiroetsa carboxyhemoglobin and removes it from the blood stream;
  • increases the resistance of the internal organs to oxygen starvation, reducing the need tissues of O2;
  • fills the shortage of zinc.

Azizol as an antidote carbon monoxide is injected intramuscularly 1 ml the Maximum daily dose should not exceed 4 ml. of a Course of treatment 7 to 10 days. Side effects of the antidote were not identified. Sometimes it may be painful infiltration in the area of administration. In case of overdose the patient can leave a metallic taste in the mouth, nausea, headaches.

To stimulate respiration, the nervous and vascular system administered subcutaneously caffeine. The effect of the drug:

  • strengthens heart function;
  • dilates blood vessels;
  • speeds up pulse;
  • promotes the separation of urine;
  • eliminates the headache.

Partially withdraw the carbon monoxide from the body helps carboxylase (an enzyme). It helps break complex carboxyhemoglobin, cleavage of molecules WITH from hemoglobin. The drug is administered intravenously.


Carbon monoxide is a highly toxic substance. Therefore, the poisoning of humans in rare cases it goes unnoticed. Intoxication leads to consequences of different severity.

Possible complications:

  • the defeat of the senses – hearing, vision;
  • trophic lesions of the skin – swelling, bubbles, necrosis;
  • poor circulation in the brain;
  • bleeding in the space between the meninges and the web;
  • numerous toxic nerve damage;
  • signs of cerebral edema;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • myoglobinuric nephrosis – acute renal failure that develops in toxic lesion of the body;
  • severe pneumonia is a pneumonia that occurs in a patient during a long stay in a coma.

People who have suffered co poisoning, often seen late complications, months or even years. Most suffering psyche and the nervous system.

Patients complain of memory loss, reduced attention span and intelligence level. The person badly perceives new information, loses the ability to learn. Evolving psychosis – response and mental activity of man is contrary to reality. The perception of the world is violated, the behavior is disorganized.

Long-term effects of lesions of the nervous system:

  • the development of blindness;
  • paralysis;
  • violation of the functional bodies of the greater and lesser pelvis;
  • parkinsonism.

Of the heart over time, these abnormalities;

  • cardiac asthma;
  • inflammation of the membranes of the heart;
  • angina;
  • myocardial infarction.

On the part of the respiratory system – frequent outbreaks of pneumonia.

To reduce the likelihood of severe complications, it is important to provide emergency medical assistance and to introduce the antidote.

The effect of carbon monoxide on health always contributes to a serious failure of the internal systems and organs. In most cases, leads to death. Therefore, the precaution in the operation of heating devices should be a top priority. You cannot neglect safety rules and labor protection. In areas where there is a risk of increasing the concentration of carbon monoxide in the air, you need to install a sensor to control the situation. This device is powered by batteries or network and does not require special maintenance. At higher toxic substances in the air, it beeps.

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