Chloramphenicol poisoning, vomiting, diarrhea
The chloramphenicol in cases of poisoning
Food poisoning are quite frequent. Often people do not go to doctors, and trying to solve the problem yourself. One of the most popular means of self-medication is getting chloramphenicol in cases of poisoning by food. But antibiotics are not always appropriate. Therefore, it is necessary to remember features of this drug and its regulations.
What is chloramphenicol
Chloramphenicol is a synthetic antibacterial drug. Demonstrates particular efficacy against gram-positive bacteria, such as gonococci, meningococci and others. Successfully fights microorganisms that cause poisoning, such as Salmonella, Proteus, Leptospira could. Weakly active against acid-fast bacteria, protozoa and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Indications for the use of the drug are:
- Intestinal infection.
- Infectious diseases.
- Festering wounds.
- Prolonged diarrhea.
The main active ingredient of the drug prevents the formation of protein in the body bacteria. In this regard, the microorganisms die quickly. The drug has several analogues, for example, tivoization, Parkin, Belizean and some others.
Bacterial resistance to chloramphenicol develops slowly. The drug is rapidly absorbed. Its maximum concentration in blood is observed after a couple of hours after ingestion.
It is more convenient to apply the drug, which comes in the form of tablets. They have a yellowish tint. Each tablet may contain 0.5 or 0.25 g of active substance. As auxiliary substances are used stearic acid and potato starch. In some cases, it is advisable to apply chloramphenicol, produced in the form of powder for preparation of injections. This method of administration of medication provides rapid absorption.
In some cases, required chloramphenicol
Any antibacterial drugs, including chloramphenicol poisoning, it is advisable to take in the following cases:
- The event, first aid is not bring the expected effect.
- The diarrhea does not stop for several days. This day may be about 15 bouts.
- Vomiting persists more than two days.
- In the vomit there are any admixture of bile or blood.
- Presence in the stool blood or pus.
- High body temperature does not subside within two days. The reception of fever-reducing drugs has no effect.
The necessity of application of the drug can be identified in the course of laboratory research.
If direct indications for chloramphenicol no, you should not try to treatment. From disease it will not save, and harm health.
How to use the drug
Chloramphenicol for poisoning you can drink for adults and children over the age of three years. The course of therapy should be at least a week. The tablet is best taken half an hour before meals, drinking plenty of clean water. Swallow it whole, without breaking or chewing. Remember that to wash down medicines with milk, juice and other drinks are not. If the victim was observed vomiting, then medication is recommended to drink an hour after eating.
The maximum dosage for an adult is 2 grams. It should be divided into three equal intervals of time. Children older than eight years can not give more than 0.4 gram of chloramphenicol. Toddlers shouldn’t use more than 15 mg for every kilogram of body weight.
Children are recommended intramuscular injection. The necessary amount of powder dissolved in water according to the attached to the medication instructions. Injection should be performed at regular intervals of time. The duration of treatment can be determined only by the attending physician.
If after a few days use of the drug the victim’s condition is not improving, you should immediately contact a doctor. Undergo a medical examination to help determine the exact cause of the poisoning.
The drug has a number of contraindications, so before applying you should consult with a specialist. It must not be taken with phenytoin, cytotoxic drugs, barbiturates, sulfonamides and some other substances. It is necessary to pay attention before starting treatment.
Store, released in tablets, not more than three years. Powder for preparation of injection is kept a little longer, up to four years. Before using the product check its shelf life. Remember that the use of expired medicines dangerous to health.
In some cases, the use of such anti-infective drug can lead to negative health effects. Among the main contraindications are:
- individual intolerance of the drug. Some people have seen a manifestation of severe allergic reactions;
- diabetes mellitus;
- the age of three;
- pregnancy and breast-feeding period;
- serious skin diseases such as eczema, fungus or psoriasis;
- kidney or liver failure in severe form;
- the blood circulation;
It is not necessary to apply antibiotic and in that case, if the poisoning is caused by toxins or viruses. In this case the drug will be ineffective and valuable time will be wasted.
Some people have marked resistance to chloramphenicol. This means that the disease simply do not react to the drug. To identify these will help control over the health of the victim. If after two or three days after beginning treatment, no improvement is observed, you should consult with your doctor about changing drugs.
Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum drug. He not only has a deleterious effect on pathogenic bacteria but also negatively affects the human body. If an antibiotic is carried out without the supervision of a specialist, the probability of development of side effects that are listed below:
- The development of severe allergic reactions. It may manifest pruritus, laryngeal edema or tongue, rash.
- The development of anemia on the background of violations in the formation of red blood cells.
- The drop in the level of leukocytes in the blood, which reduces the protective ability of the body.
- The decrease in the number of blood platelets that can cause bleeding.
- The urine becomes dark in color.
- Deterioration of health, fatigue, drowsiness.
- The appearance of excruciating headaches.
- Reduction of visual acuity, hearing loss.
Upon detection of such violations to the victim as soon as possible need to assist. He must undergo a medical examination and to adjust the treatment program.
Taking any antimicrobial drugs invariably leads to disruption of the intestinal microflora. So after a course of primary therapy will need restorative treatment with probiotics.
Sometimes the desire to quickly get rid of the disease, people tend to drink more drugs. This leads to an overdose, which in turn leads to serious health consequences. Signs of overdose include:
- Pale skin.
- Pain in region of larynx.
- The increase in body temperature.
- Fatigue, weakness in the limbs.
If the overdose is severe, there is a «grey collapse.» It is accompanied by diarrhea, vomiting, severe bloating, breathing problems, problems in the heart. Especially dangerous are the symptoms in children.
If you notice signs of overdose should immediately stop taking the drug. Need gastric lavage and usual first aid applied in cases of poisoning. After this, you should consult your health-care practitioner for further treatment.
The use of chloramphenicol for diarrhea
Poisoning in most cases accompanied by diarrhea. The desire to quickly get rid of this unpleasant symptom, the victims are ready to use any means, including chloramphenicol.
The use of this drug will have the desired effect only if the diarrhea was caused by infection. The active substance of the drug quickly cope with bacteria, and the diarrhea to stop.
The victim can not accurately determine the cause of the diarrhea. Uncontrolled reception of antibiotics can be hazardous to health. So when you see this symptom you must consult the doctor and get tested.
If there is no possibility to see a specialist, try taking one tablet of the drug and observe its condition. If within four hours no improvement is observed, then the drug use is inappropriate.
In the case of treatment of diarrhea chloramphenicol should not be abruptly to break off treatment. Harmful bacteria are killed in the first day of treatment. At the same time continue taking the drug need a few more days after the complete cessation of diarrhea.
Food poisoning can have several different causes. So before you apply for the treatment of chloramphenicol is necessary to determine the causative agent. Remember that taking any medicines without medical supervision may cause undesirable health effects.