Classification of food poisonings of the bacterial nature
Classification and hygiene of food poisoning
To food intoxications are acute or chronic diseases that arise after the consumption of food, contamination of pathogenic microorganisms. The cause of the dangerous symptoms are toxins secreted by the bacteria during metabolism. Connection nemikrobnoy origin also refer to the provocative toxicity factors. Classification of food poisonings of the bacterial nature helps in diagnosing diseases, determining the type of agent and assignment of optimal medical therapy.
Features of food poisoning
Intoxication of food refers to the type of pathologies that develop under the influence of various causal factors. The symptoms caused by the ingestion of the blood stream of poisons or pathogens differ from each other by severity and selectivity. In General, a group of toxicologists and infectious disease specialists unite them in a number of common characteristics:
- Signs of bacterial poisoning appear suddenly, the disease progresses rapidly;
- Intoxication arises from all the people that jointly used the same food;
- Food was purchased or manufactured at one plant.
Classification of intoxication substandard products allows you to avoid antibiotic therapy in those cases where microbial contamination have arisen. The use of antibiotics negatively affects the intestines, causing a decrease in peristalsis, the absorption of vitamins and minerals.
The important criteria of classification are the absence of the ability to transfer the toxin or infectious agent from person to person. This is the main difference between food poisoning from the diseases of infectious nature.
Classification of poisoning food
The choice of detoxification treatments and therapies are based on the following classification of the causes of food poisoning:
- Microbial origin: poisoning, bacterial toxicoses, mycotoxicoses, intoxication mixed etiology;
- Nemikrobnoy of nature: poisoning by poisons of plants, animals, chemicals, metals;
- The etiology of intoxication is not installed.
To the last group in the classification experts consider be Haff disease causing. Intoxication in this case develops after the use of caught fish in the lakes. Described in the medical literature cases have occurred at different times, food poisoning was diagnosed in individual countries. Was put forward the theory that an unknown toxic compound contained in fish oil or liver, and is not decomposed even after long heat treatment.
Uravska disease mentioned in the classification of poisoning. Pathology found in Baikal, is characterized by degenerative changes in joints and bones among the local population. Scientists link abnormal phenomenon with the use of water from rivers or lakes.
In the preparation of the classification, as a rule, take into account the mass of the disease from individual cases of food poisoning before the poisoning, which affected tens of thousands of people. Chronic pathology often occurs when you ingested toxic compounds nemikrobnoy nature. Viruses, bacteria, E. coli, botulinum toxin can cause an acute manifestation of the clinical picture of poisoning.
Classification of poisonings of microbial etiology
Intoxication poor quality food is the result of penetration into the bloodstream of pathogenic microorganisms. Actively multiply, they secrete into the external environment the products of their metabolism that are poisonous.
An overwhelming number of diagnosed cases of diseases occur in late spring or summer. Warm and moist environment is a fertile breeding ground for microbes:
- Escherichia coli;
- Bacteria of the genus Proteus;
The source of infection be milk, meat, fish, vegetables (boiled or baked potato), fruits (bananas, persimmons). The likelihood of toxicity increases with improper food storage, lack of heat treatment, compliance with hygiene. Bacteria penetrate into the food during the processing of raw materials, the use of leaking packaging in the absence of adequate sanitary control in factories or stores.
About ten years ago in the South of the country was recorded case of mass food poisoning creamy ice cream. Causes of death of several people was enterobacteria and poor heat treatment of raw materials.
Classification of symptoms of diseases is extensive, depends on the state of the human immune system, age and number of eaten product. 30 minutes after eating disrupted the gastrointestinal tract:
- Pain in the abdomen, diarrhea;
- The victim opens with vomiting.
In the diagnosis of food poisoning is carried out to determine the pathogen and its sensitivity to antibiotics. The acute form of the disease requires urgent hospitalization and conduct detoxication therapy.
Toxicosis caused by bacteria and protozoa fungi
Food intoxication (toxicosis) — pathology provoked by accumulated in foods toxic compounds. There is a classification of toxins of bacterial origin:
- Botulinum toxin;
- Some strains of staphylococci.
To contamination sources include canned foods, sausages, smoked salmon. Botulinum toxin often ingested in food after its poor processing or inadequate heat treatment.
After picking under the cap may be ground, which contain pathogenic microorganisms. Cooking the fruit bodies with the use of salt does not imply pre-boiling. Multiply the mushrooms botulinum toxin, after eating, can cause paralysis of the respiratory system.
Golden staphylococci thrive in protein creamy or creams, cakes, cakes. Classification of fungal symptoms and bacterial toxicity similar to the manifestations of gastroenteritis: disorders of the functional activity of the digestive tract, fever, hypertension.
Classification of poisoning nemikrobnoy origin
The table of food poisoning the main part of concomitant fatal cases, taking toxic compounds of plant or animal origin. The victims are often small children who, because of their natural curiosity try attractive berries, smelling colorful flowers. Intoxication occurs in the following cases:
- Bites of serpents or poisonous insects;
- By inhaling the aroma of the plants (some species of Datura);
- When eating inedible berries (henbane);
- In the use of poisonous mushrooms (pale toadstool, fly agaric).
Once inside the bloodstream, the toxins bind red blood cells and prevent entry of molecular oxygen to the brain cells. Disturbed regulation of all vital systems that are capable of provoking a lethal outcome.
Diagnosed in the summer a large number of cases of poisoning watermelons, which contain nitrates. Unscrupulous producers use pesticides to reduce the time of maturation.
Acute and chronic food poisoning occurs when unsafe practices when working with pesticides: herbicides, caustic alkalis, acids, metals. Dangerous condition develops in the home and in the workplace. There is the following classification of the pathways of toxins:
- Through the skin and mucous membranes;
- When released into the gastrointestinal tract;
- After inhalation of vapors or gases.
To dangerous symptoms of food intoxication are: thready pulse, nausea, vomiting, tremor of the upper and lower extremities, convulsions, fainting, coma. Often only first aid allows you to save the life of a victim. For most toxic compounds synthesized and successfully applied the antidote.