E. coli: symptoms and treatment in children and adults
What is a E. coli and how to cope with it
The infected E. coli is a dangerous disease that requires immediate treatment. Otherwise, the bacteria spread throughout the body and carried to the defeat of the internal organs.
What is a E. coli
E. coli is a type of bacteria that have rod-shaped form. They belong to the group of facultative anaerobic bacteria. This means that to exist and they can breed only in the absence of oxygen.
E. coli has several varieties. Some of them belong to the category non-pathogenic. They are present in the body. The role of Escherichia coli in the human body – to stimulate the synthesis of vitamin K and suppress the development of harmful microflora. Pathogenic forms of bacteria can lead to the development of serious diseases.
E. coli exists and is propagated under the condition of ambient temperature at 37 degrees. It feeds in the intestine with mineral substances and breakdown products of amino acids. Remains viable into the water, soil and food. From where the bacterium lives, will depend on the way of infection.
Varieties of E. coli
Currently there are several pathogenic strains of this bacterium. They are able to provoke various diseases. There are the following types of e coli:
- Enteropathogenic. Most common the E. coli in a child. After contact with the mucous surface of the intestines, it starts the process of its destruction. The bacteria interfere with the normal absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. Affects primarily the small intestine.
- Enterotoxigenic. Bacteria, of attached fibers to epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract, produce toxins. They become the breeding ground for the development of Escherichia coli.
- Hemolytic. This kind of bacteria is considered the most dangerous. She becomes the cause of oppression of the functions of the intestines and stomach. In some cases, its activity leads to muscular paralysis of the internal organs.
- Necroinvasiv. The development of such an infection is accompanied by severe pain, bloody diarrhea. If time does not take action, there will be serious stage of dehydration.
- Enterohemorrhagic. These bacteria in a short time penetrate into body cells and cause their death. The activity of this E. coli leads to the development of hemorrhagic colitis and kidney damage.
Variety of bacteria depends on the manifestation of the infection. Therefore, determining the causative agent is often possible by the characteristic symptoms.
What diseases provokes E. coli
The bacterium Escherichia coli can cause several different diseases. Infection by such microorganisms are called E. coli. The problem manifests itself in different ways, depending on the localization. There are the following diseases that were caused by the bacterium:
- The result of the activity of enteropathogenic bacteria appears the disruption of the digestive system, which is primarily expressed in enterocolitis. This phenomenon is more common in children attending kindergarten. Infection can occur in the hospital or in the hospital.
- Enterotoxigenic bacteria cause symptoms similar to cholera. Infection occurs by eating infected water and food. In some cases, is the development of meningitis, sepsis, otitis media and other complications.
- Enteroinvasive bacteria lead to infection similar to dysentery. In severe lesions the infection affects the urinary system. Diagnosed cystitis in women, pyelonephritis, diseases of the prostate in men and other problems.
- Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli a dangerous development of severe infectious diseases of intestine in children. And the consequences of this disease can be very severe renal insufficiency, anemia, decrease in the concentration of platelets in the blood.
- Dangerous is getting any bacteria inside a woman’s vagina. This leads to inflammation of the genital organs. Initially, there is vulvovaginitis, or vaginitis. If time does not eliminate the pathogen, the infection ascends to the fallopian tubes and uterus. Develops endometritis. Upon further movement of bacteria up through the body they get into the abdomen, there is peritonitis. The disease caused by Escherichia coli, is manifested in different ways and can have a lot of complications in the organs and systems of the body. Therefore the pathogen must be identified as early as possible and to immediately start treatment.
The way you get
Important question, how is E. coli. Only knowing the way of infection, infection can be prevented. There are the following ways on how you can become infected with bacteria:
- Contact. E. coli is passed from person to person. The pathogen can live in the mouth, on the skin to hide the scratches. Therefore an infection is possible even with a simple handshake. In addition, bacteria are unable to live for a while and at the household items used by the infected person.
- Alimentary. The pathogen enters into the environment through defecation. It is transferred by insects on any items. There and enters the body of a person who does not comply with all rules of hygiene.
- Airborne. You can become infected even when talking with a sick person. Saliva evaporates, mixes with the air. The radius of such a defeat is around three meters.
The main source of the origin of the bacterium, becomes a man. Outbreaks of infectious diseases characteristic of large concentrations of people, for example, educational institutions, hospitals, kindergartens.
Contact with objects the infected person infects them. For example, a healthy child dangerous games with the same toys, reading the same books and use the same furniture that the children and the sick.
Another place, where there is E. coli, the water becomes. In order to get sick, sometimes it is enough just to drink water from the tap. This often happens if you drink water while on holiday abroad.
Even with the presence of a powerful water filtration system, drinking water from it is not worth it. Some species of bacteria can survive in such conditions.
Causes of infection may lie in the use of poor quality food. Especially dangerous is getting the lactic acid environment in which microorganisms are able to proliferate. It is often contagious food of animal origin. Therefore, do not eat foods that were sold on the market are not covered, such as sausages without packaging.
The main manifestations of the disease
Signs of E. coli in adults and children may vary depending on the types of bacteria. But and secrete a number of common symptoms:
- Violations of the chair. Can occur constipation or diarrhea.
- Pain in the abdomen.
- Foul-smelling breath.
- Nausea and retching.
- Stool become uncharacteristic odor.
- People quickly get tired and constantly feeling sleepy.
- There has been a dramatic decrease in appetite.
That looks like the clinical picture of the disease depends on the type of bacteria and their localizations. Based on the type of Escherichia coli, secrete symptoms:
- Enterotoxigenic coli cause tissue necrosis of the intestine. It is accompanied by diarrhea with blood, frequent vomiting, pain in the abdomen.
- Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli bacteria can lead to the appearance of the prominent symptoms of intoxication, stool is watery, it is detected admixture of blood.
- Symptoms of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is the loss of appetite, retching, children often vomit, have trouble falling asleep.
- Enteroinvasive infection manifests with watery stools containing blood, pain in the lower abdomen, bouts of nausea.
- Hemolyzing infection is manifested by blood in the stool, bleeding that is noticeable on the skin, the appearance of jaundice, a decreased hemoglobin.
The first symptoms of E. coli infection appear several days after infection. If time does not take appropriate measures to develop disease of the internal organs.
The definition of the exact diagnosis
At home reliably detect the presence and specific type of Escherichia coli impossible. For an accurate diagnosis will require laboratory studies. There are several methods:
- Microscopy. The patient samples are taken of the intestinal contents, vaginal swab, urine, and blood. All selected materials are studied under a microscope.
- Bacteriological. Taken from the patient’s biological material is transferred to a special environment. If E. coli is present, then some time later she begins to actively proliferate. In some cases subsequently can be performed antibiogram. With its help is determined by the sensitivity of bacteria to various kinds antibacterially drugs.
- If the infection is localized in the intestines, it is necessary to study to determine the degree of dysbiosis.
Only after a pathogenic E. coli detected and determined its view, the specialist can make an accurate diagnosis and to develop a methodology how to deal with the problem.
Features of treatment
The approach to how to treat E. coli, must be comprehensive. Therapy should be conducted under the supervision of a specialist. There are the following features correct treatment:
- The use of antibacterial drugs. To therapy was the most successful in the laboratory to determine which antibiotics kill E. coli in a particular case. To this end, a specialized study. Get rid of Escherichia coli can be after two weeks of medication. Two months after the end of therapy must be repeated bacteriological culture for control. If re-infection is detected, then a course of antibiotics will have to be repeated. The only way to completely kill E. coli. How many treated the disease will depend on the characteristics of the patient and degree of infection.
- Therapy complications. If the infection has triggered the development of comorbidities, the treatment program includes activities to eliminate them. For these purposes subject to appropriate medicines.
- Compliance with dietary needs. To cure E. coli can be subject to a special power mode. The menu should include more cereals, cooked with water, mucous soups, boiled vegetables, lean meat and fish, steamed. It is strictly forbidden to eat meats, greasy and fried foods, canned goods, milk, fresh fruits, spices.
- When enteric infection is accompanied by severe vomiting and diarrhea, is dehydration. In order to restore a normal balance, the patient needs to drink plenty of pure water. In severe cases, apply medications, for example, regidron or Trisol. In addition, it is recommended to use sorbents since the first days of the disease. Gives good results of treatment with enterosgel, smektoj, polycarbon and other drugs in this group.
- Allowed and treatment of folk remedies. The application of the prescriptions of alternative medicine is only possible in conjunction with conservative therapy. Well helps the product manufactured on the basis of the Jerusalem artichoke. About 250 grams of peeled tubers need to slice it into small slices and put into a bucket. There also pour a glass of milk and the same amount of water. To cook artichoke need until then, until it becomes completely soft. The resulting broth is filtered. In the prepared liquid add a little butter and flour. A little boiled. This sauce pour the remaining Jerusalem artichokes and flavored with fresh herbs. This dish can be eaten for Breakfast or lunch. It effectively fights bacteria and restores intestinal flora.
Any folk remedies are contraindicated. Before application it is imperative to consult a doctor.
Now you know how to treat an intestinal infection. Specific drugs and their dosages are selected by the specialist for each patient individually.
In order to prevent infection with E. coli, it is necessary to observe simple precautions. Prevention includes:
- Compliance with all principles of personal hygiene. Try as often as possible to wash hands, especially after being in public places.
- Adults who have active sex life, you must be aware of the rules of intimate hygiene.
- Do not eat unwashed fruits and vegetables.
- When cooking sure that the products are well roasted. Do not cut meat and other foods on the same cutting Board.
- All the remaining meals must store in the refrigerator.
- Don’t drink the tap water and unknown sources. You can safely drink only boiled water.
Following these simple rules, you can protect yourself from E. coli. But if infection does occur, you need as quickly as possible to take action.