Exogenous intoxication and poisoning of the body
What is exogenous intoxication
Exogenous intoxication is a disease provoked by ingestion of toxic or poisonous substances through the digestive, the respiratory system or the skin. Some poisons can lead to serious complications and even death. This article describes the causes and symptoms of exogenous intoxication, methods of first aid and principles of treatment.
Than can be caused by exogenous intoxication
Any substance, under certain circumstances, can cause acute intoxication and poisoning. All contact persons, that the uses inside, it has an impact. Is it good or bad, depends on many factors, including the age and weight of the person, the number of received inside of the substance, the presence of chronic diseases. For example, alcohol in small doses does not cause intoxication or poisoning. In the case of drugs or alcohol a child develops a severe exogenous intoxication.
The most common causes of exogenic intoxication include:
- substandard, spoiled or expired food;
- alcoholic beverages or alcohol substitutes (methyl ethylene glycol);
- drug, overdose;
- overdose of drugs. Any medication in case of incorrect use can cause severe intoxication;
- the venoms of insects, plants and animals. For example, the bite of a Viper or rattlesnake leads to a deadly exogenous intoxication;
- poisonous mushrooms (fly agaric, death caps, etc.). Toxins and poisons present in the mushrooms are not destroyed even by heat treatment;
- toxic gases, smoke or vapours of chemicals. These substances enter the body through the respiratory tract, rapidly absorbed into the blood stream. Some of them, like carbon monoxide, leading to serious Central nervous system;
- salts of heavy metals (mercury, lead, etc.). Prolonged contact with them at work develop chronic exogenous intoxication, in which structural changes are observed in many internal organs;
- household chemicals, detergents, cosmetics often lead to children with exogenous intoxications. Kids are interested in everything to taste, fragrant strawberry shower gel can attract them;
- acid and alkali. These substances are often accidentally ingested inadvertently. For example, poisoning may occur in case of accidental ingestion of citric acid, which was covered kettle to cleanse the plaque. Acids and alkalis can cause severe burns to mucous membranes of the esophagus and stomach;
- nitrates and pesticides are deadly poisonous to humans. They are used in the agricultural industry to improve plant growth and protect them from pests. Failure to comply with safety regulations the chemicals accumulate in plants and make them dangerous and toxic.
How does exogenous intoxication
Acute exogenous poisoning manifested clinically quickly. Most often the first symptoms develop within the first 2-6 hours. Symptoms and signs of intoxication depend on a kind of the toxic substance, its quantity, the way of exposure, age and weight of the patient.
Most often exogenous intoxication begins to show the common and typical symptoms of poisoning. They may join the symptoms of Central nervous system, internal organs, heart and respiration.
Please note that the poisoning by some toxins have typical characteristics and nuances about which the doctors know, based on them may suspect a specific toxic substance.
The following are the most characteristic symptoms of exogenous intoxications:
- Disorders of the digestive system. These include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, pain in the abdomen, irregularity, flatulence. These groups of symptoms most often develop the oral use of toxins.
- The defeat of the respiratory system is manifested by dry cough, shortness of breath, feeling of lack of air, shortness of breath. The lungs were most affected by poisoning with toxic gases and vapors. In severe chemical poisoning may develop pulmonary edema, acute respiratory failure.
- Hyperthermia – increase in body temperature. This symptom is characteristic of food poisoning, overdose of hypnotics and tranquilizers, intoxication with salts of heavy metals, etc. In case of intoxication by some drugs, e.g. paracetamol or aspirin, you may experience a sharp decline in body temperature, hypothermia.
- The heart rhythm disturbance is developing in virtually every exogenous intoxication. Palpitations, tachycardia is a sign of dehydration, loss of body electrolytes. Arrhythmia, extrasystoles developed with the drug and narcotic intoxication. Patients in serious and critical condition may develop bradycardia, slow heartbeat.
- The change of level of arterial pressure. In certain intoxications, it can be increased, for example, in cases of poisoning by alcohol. In case of severe dehydration develops hypotonia, reduced pressure.
- Disruption of the Central nervous system. During intoxication with poisons, drugs or certain medicines, gases affects the nervous system. The disease may manifest seizures, hallucinations, loss of coordination, speech, where a patient in a coma.
Please note that different intoxication can lead to various complications. Under the influence of toxic substances can affect the kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas. Such diseases require immediate medical intervention.
What to do in the case of exogenous intoxication
The treatment of any exogenous intoxication should be performed by a qualified doctor. It is only after examination of the survey and examination of the patient will be able to make a diagnosis, determine severity, identify complications and to assign individual and proper treatment.
At the first signs of intoxication or poisoning should go to the doctor. It is best to call the ambulance. Before arrival of physicians need to begin to provide first aid. Its volume depends primarily on the pathways of toxin in the body.
In case of poisoning with toxic and poisonous gases must immediately bring people to the fresh and unpolluted air. Helping the victim in the first place should be worried about their safety. Entering the smoky room, wear a gas mask or respirator.
Once the man was secure, loosen his tie, shirt. Nothing should interfere with the free breathing. Can wash him with water and allow to rinse your mouth. Then the patient will drink water or sweet tea, provide him peace.
If the toxin gets into the body through the digestive system, you should immediately try to remove it from the stomach. For this poisoned person should drink in one gulp a few glasses of plain water to cause vomiting.
Remember that gastric lavage is strictly forbidden in cases of poisoning by alkalis or acids, with the appearance of vomiting of a dark color or in the case of a disturbed mind of the patient.
Then we should give him to drink the sorbent. It can be activated carbon, POLYSORB, enterosgel etc. Rules of dosage specified in the instructions.
If the patient has stopped vomiting, you can give him to drink plain water.
The penetration of the chemicals or poisons on the skin, mucous membranes
If the toxins are on the skin or mucosa, immediately wash the affected skin with running water for 15-20 minutes.
What to do if the patient has lost consciousness
Severe exogenous intoxication can lead to loss of consciousness. In such a situation should not panic, but to help the patient. Put it on a flat surface, turn the head to one side.
Constantly check his pulse and breathing. They stop talking about clinical death, about the necessity of immediate holding of chest compressions.
Treatment of intoxication
The ambulance crew who came to call, examine and question the patient, to give him necessary medical help. Hospitalization is carried out urgently to the nearest emergency hospital.
If the patient’s condition is satisfactory, leave it be treated at home, call him my doctor, who determines the necessary amount of treatment.
Food poisoning treatment is carried out in the infectious ward, in cases of poisoning by poisons, medicines, drugs and chemicals in toxicology. All patients residing in serious or critical condition and placed in ICU (intensive care unit).
In parallel with the treatment is carried out laboratory and instrumental examination of the patient. All further therapy is prescribed based on the diagnostic data.
Remember that the sooner you seek medical help, the more doctors the opportunity to help a poisoned person.
Exogenous intoxication can occur for many reasons. Toxins can enter the body through the lungs, digestive system, skin and mucous membranes. With the development of the first clinical signs of the disease need to consult your doctor for help. The treatment is performed in a hospital. In the case of stable condition of the patient may be prescribed treatment at home.