First aid for mushroom poisoning in the home
First aid for mushroom poisoning in adults and children
Cases of mass poisoning by wild mushrooms have a tendency to increase. First aid for mushroom poisoning should be carried out at home or at the place where the accident happened. Its quality depends the health and life of man.
Why mushrooms are poisonous
The ability of mushrooms to accumulate mycotoxins from the environment, the poisons contained only in mushrooms makes them potentially dangerous to humans.
The toxic substances of fungi:
- Amanitin ─ the poisonous substance contained in the mushrooms. It blocks the cells, leading to their death. The most vulnerable cells of the liver and kidneys.
- Muscarin ─ acts selectively on nerve endings.
- Muscardin ─ alkaloid, disrupts the functionality of the digestive and nervous system.
- Phallotoxin ─ the group of poisons, which affects the plasma cells. The most exposed hepatocytes (liver cells).
Poisonous mushrooms, depending on species have different concentration of chemical agents and impact force on the human body.
Category 1 ─ the local or local poisons acts. They affect the digestive tract, disturbing the digestive processes. The influence of poisons starts in 2 hours after ingestion. Symptoms: nausea, mild pain in the epigastric region, General weakness. This lead in edible mushrooms, if you violate the technology of their preparation.
Category 2 ─ toxic substances that affect the Central nervous system. Symptoms: impaired vision, coordination, speech. The victim observed hallucinations, memory loss. On the background of neurological disorders, nausea and sweating.
Category 3 ─ deadly poisons that in 90% of cases are fatal. The action of toxic substances starts a few hours after their absorption in the stomach. The symptoms develop acutely. Since the affected brain, the victim has seen a dramatic decline of all vital functions of the organism on the background of the VX effects on neurons: the failure of the kidneys and the liver, heart and respiration.
Causes of mushroom poisoning and the possible consequences
The poison can be as edible mushrooms and poisonous:
- Poisonous wild mushrooms. Poisoning occurs as a result of the fact that people just mix them with edible.
- Violation of preparation technology and heat treatment. So, edible mushrooms become poisonous.
- Canned and marinated mushrooms improperly stored.
- People with diseases of the pancreas, gall bladder, stomach can cause symptoms of food poisoning.
- chronic liver and kidney failure;
- during pregnancy ─ violation of fetal development, miscarriage, premature birth;
Symptoms of mushroom poisoning
The first signs of poisoning are different and depend on the variety of mushrooms. Timely recognition of these symptoms will determine the first aid for mushroom poisoning in the home.
Common poisonous mushrooms:
- Pale toadstool ─ deadly. The symptoms appear after 6 hours and to days when you are already irreversible changes in the organs. Starts with a sharp pain in the abdomen. There is a rapid dehydration: repeated profuse vomiting, diarrhea, heavy sweating. Rejuvenated hands and feet. Is reduced body temperature. Developed acute renal and heart failure that in the vast majority of cases is fatal.
- Red mushroom ─ leads to nervous disorders. Symptoms: hallucinations and delusions, hysteria, alternating with drowsiness. Victims have profuse salivation, sweating, lack of urine. The heartbeat slows down. Symptoms appear early, within the hour, so more likely to provide timely medical assistance.
- Gyromitra ─ poisons affect the blood, destroys red blood cells, the oxygen of the body. There is nausea, developing jaundice, General weakness and drowsiness. In severe cases ─ vomiting, muscle twitching, coma, and death.
- Mind-bending, kind Psilocybe. The symptoms associated with mental disorders. At the initial stage, decreased blood pressure, dilated pupils, reaction to light is weak, weakness, and feeling of intoxication. Later appear hallucinations, which lead to psychosis, disturbed coordination in space and a reference point in time. Depression leading to suicide.
- Fungi that affect the gastrointestinal tract, ─ satanic mushroom, rosemarinic giant, Dubovik, mlecnik, some russulas. Symptoms: abdominal pain, dyspepsia, high fever, and sometimes convulsions, fainting. Poisoning in a healthy adult is alone a few days. The children, handicapped and elderly people, develop complications.
Response of the digestive system ─ is the primary symptom of any mushroom poisoning.
First aid if poisoning poisonous mushrooms
The sooner will be given first aid at a poisoning with poisonous mushrooms, the higher the chances of a successful outcome.
The first thing to do is to reduce the impact of toxins on the body. If you use no more than two hours, an urgent need to wash out the stomach. For this to give people drink 3-4 glasses of water, then induce vomiting by pushing fingers on the tongue root. The procedure is repeated several times.
Important! There are guidelines that in cases of poisoning by mushrooms for gastric lavage it is possible to use potassium permanganate. It didn’t, but potassium permanganate has one drawback, dissolve crystals long. The loss of time in cases of poisoning by mushrooms is fraught with fatal consequences. Moreover, not until the end of dissolved potassium permanganate causes severe burns to mucous membranes of the esophagus and stomach. Therefore, it is better not to experiment and use clean water.
To neutralize poisons, to give the person activated charcoal, to calculate the dose according to instructions.
To reduce the absorption of toxic substances in the intestines, you need the victim to do an enema.
The technique of the enema:
- Fill the warmer with water (1 – 1.5 liters). The water temperature should not exceed 25 °C. To enhance the cleaning effect, you can add a spoon of sunflower or paraffin oil.
- Man lay on the bed (sofa, couch), next put a bowl in case the victim will not be able to retain water in the intestine.
- The victim lay on the edge on the left side, bending your knees and bringing it to the stomach. So relax abdominal muscles and facilitates the flow of water into the colon.
- The tip, greased with vaseline, inserted into the rectum 3-4 cm toward the umbilicus, and then by 8 cm parallel to the coccyx. Need ensures that water does not act quickly, it will cause pain.
- You should try to retain water in the intestine for 10 min.
Important! The temperature of the water for the enema should be warm. So it is instantly absorbed by the intestinal wall, and the cleansing effect will not occur. Moreover, warm water will contribute to the rapid penetration of toxins from the intestine into the blood.
To expand the blood vessels and slow down blood circulation put to the feet warm heating pad. It can also be put on a stomach for pain symptom. To restore the water-salt balance to drink salt solutions.
Before the arrival of the ambulance man must be in a horizontal position, must be constantly monitored on its state.
Features of first aid for poisoning in children
In children, the absorption of toxins into the blood is faster. What to do in this situation?
Gastric lavage children are doing, if the use of mushrooms was no more than 30 min to induce vomiting, the child can be given to drink a glass of water, milk or tea, what is at hand. Then two fingers push at the base of the tongue. So output is up to 60% of the poisons, once ingested with mushrooms.
If the time of contact poisoning of food in the stomach has been more than 30 min or fails to cause vomiting, to give the child activated charcoal.
Attention! Overdose activated charcoal does not happen! Assisting, calculate the desired quantity from the formula: 1 g per 1 kg of body weight. Activated charcoal-an indispensable tool for any poisoning: medications, plants, mushrooms, substandard food, drugs. Therefore, this drug should be in every home medicine Cabinet.
Administration of activated charcoal is more effective than vomiting. Therefore, if the child can drink, no need to spend time to induce vomiting.
The difficulties of providing assistance is that the child can eat mushrooms without the knowledge of parents, for example, during the summer holidays in the village. The reaction of the child’s body it is difficult to predict. In 95% of cases the toxic substances of fungi act on the heart: arrhythmias, toxic reactions. Poisons can cause swelling of the Airways, the child is choking.
Symptoms in children can begin in 10-12 hours. Therefore, if the poisoning occurred, but you don’t know what it is, you immediately need a doctor.
How to avoid mushroom poisoning
Simple recommendations that will reduce the risk of mushroom poisoning:
- Do not buy dried mushrooms or canned in natural markets.
- If you collect mushrooms on their own, it should be done in safe places.
- It is impossible to collect mushrooms near roadway, landfill.
- Not recommended for children of preschool age, as they contain indigestible proteins.
- Do not trust people’s methods to verify wild mushrooms (onion or a silver spoon). The onion color changes under the action of tyrosinase. This substance found in edible and poisonous mushrooms. Same goes for silver. It darkens from exposure to amino acids as they are present in all mushrooms.
Every edible mushroom has a poisonous lookalike. It is impossible to collect young or overripe, and white.
Attention! Especially dangerous mushrooms become during a drought. They accumulate toxins.
To exclude completely mushrooms, which on the stem are simultaneously a ring and a Volvo (the bone at the base of the Stipe).
When cooking you need three times to change the water. The finished dish is stored in the refrigerator more than a day.
The effectiveness of emergency aid depends not only on correct actions, but also from the eaten raw materials. Timely response to poisoning ─ the possibility of a successful resolution.