First aid if poisoning gas
Features of first aid for poisoning by gas
Thanks to the technological progress of the gassing became prevalent. There are many reasons that can cause this pathological condition. Information about how to recognize this poisoning and help the injured person, can be useful to everyone. In this article, we discussed, what is first aid for gas poisoning, the symptoms of which manifested a pathological condition and treatment of the injured in hospital.
The causes of gassing
Gassing is a common pathological condition which is dangerous not only for health, but for the life of the affected person.
The main causes of gas poisoning are:
- prolonged stay in areas with polluted air due to gas leaks or fire.
- industrial disaster in industries due to which there was a release of gases. Can suffer the employees of the plant or the populations that reside in close proximity.
- stay in unventilated closed garage with the engine turned of the vehicle.
- suicide attempt. Some people deliberately create their own conditions for gas poisoning.
Please note that most poisoning gases developing in case of fire or leakage of gas from sleeping people. In the dream, people don’t smell of smoke and yelling.
The influence of gas on the human body
Most people likes household or carbon monoxide. When this condition affects a large number of organs and systems. The first affects the lungs, through which first of all are chemicals. Gassing can lead to complications listed below:
- Acute hypoxia (oxygen deficiency). This condition develops when chadny stinking inhalation (carbon monoxide) gas. Hemoglobin is converted to methemoglobin and loses its ability to carry oxygen to the tissues and cells of the human body. From lack of oxygen, primarily affect the brain, heart and kidneys.
- Damage to the lungs. After gassing, the patient may develop chronic diseases of the lung tissue, e.g., emphysema or chronic bronchitis.
- Deep coma, loss of brain cells, develops on the background of acute shortage of oxygen.
The clinical features of gas poisoning
Slew rate and severity of symptoms depend on the concentration of poison gas in the air and the duration of stay in a smoky environment. On average they develop in 10-15 minutes.
Please note that the symptoms of poisoning by gases evolving faster in pregnant women, the elderly, children and people with chronic diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
Below are the main symptoms of gas poisoning:
- Burning sensation in eyes, lacrimation develops due to irritation of the conjunctiva of smoke.
- Dry cough, hoarseness, sore throat – symptoms of damage and irritation of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract.
- Pale skin, with severe hypoxia can cause skin to turn blue.
- Nausea and vomiting – symptoms of intoxication, they are caused by irritation of the vomiting center in the brain.
- Respiratory disorder in which it becomes frequent, superficial, develops shortness of breath combined.
- Disturbance of consciousness can occur very quickly. First, a person develops stupor, torpor, and then it is loaded into a deep coma. When brain damage possible General convulsions throughout the body, the spontaneous discharge of feces and urine.
In cases of poisoning by household gas severe death can develop in 4-5 minutes. The victim comes to pulmonary edema develops acute respiratory failure.
First aid for gas poisoning
First aid if poisoning gas should begin with the victim to fresh uncontaminated air. Rate setting, if the room in which the person is lit and very smoky, not go into it alone and call the fire brigade. The first thing to take care of their security.
If you decide to bring people out of the contaminated smoke or gas space, put on his gas mask or respirator. In a pinch you can cover your nose and mouth with a damp piece of cloth. If no fluid can dampen the cloth with their own saliva.
First aid if poisoning poisonous gases can only be in the room with clean air or on the street. Once you brought a person from the premises with polluted air, call the ambulance, phone the Manager to describe what happened, what are the approximate number of victims, specify the correct address. If the building continues to burn call the fire Department, MOE.
While you’re doctors, you can begin to start first aid if poisoning poisonous gases. Below are the main components:
- The patient undo the tie, shirt. If you are indoors, open all Windows wide open. This is necessary for maximum circulation of fresh air.
- If the person is conscious, give him to drink plain water, sweet tea or milk. The liquid necessary for reducing toxicity and raise blood pressure.
- Can give to the patient to smell the cotton wool moistened in liquid ammonia. This is especially effective for disturbance of consciousness, lethargy.
What to do if the patient lost consciousness before the arrival of doctors
If in the course of providing first aid in case of poisoning by household gas or smoke people fainted or was rendered from a dirty room in an unconscious state, you need to provide him with the airway and monitor vital signs.
The main action on the stage of first aid to the following:
- Put the person on a hard flat surface. So that he choked on my own tongue or vomit, turn his head to one side. To improve blood flow to the brain and heart should lift his legs up.
- Follow the pulse. To control whether the pulse on the carotid artery. It runs on the anterolateral surface of the neck. In this place it is right under the skin, it is convenient to check the pulse.
- Monitor the presence of breathing. To do this, you can put your hand on the chest of the affected person. When you inhale and exhale, it will rise and fall.
- With the development of respiratory failure and cardiac contractility need to initiate chest compressions. If you help yourself to do artificial respiration «mouth to mouth» is not necessary.
Describe briefly the paramedics arrived on a call, what happened. Try to specify the time that the patient spent in smoke-filled room, tell yourself what helped the victim.
Remember that doctors from the emergency room can treat and save the patients only in terms of its own security. These rules are unspecific. Not necessary to expect from them pulling the victim from the filled with smoke room. Can you do it alone or team MES, firefighters, arrived on a call.
The doctors conduct a quick examination of the patient, check blood pressure, respiratory rate and heart rate, saturation level (the oxygen concentration in the blood). They then proceed to the first aid, which consists of:
- connect droppers with solutions to fill the volume of circulating blood (BCC), reduction of intoxication;
- provide the patient with oxygen through a facial mask;
- the introduction of antiemetic drugs (cerucal, metoclopramide);
- drugs that regulate the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
If the victims are many, medics who first responded to a call, conducts triage, and calls for more doctors.
After first aid hospitalitynet patients in reanimation or Toxicological Department.
The duration of stay in hospital and the amount of treatment and examinations depend on the type of toxic substances and the severity of the patient’s condition.
Components of treatment are listed below:
- Continuous oxygen therapy provides treatment of hypoxia.
- Finding the patient in the hyperbaric chamber allows to reduce the level of methemoglobin in the blood.
- Hemodialysis is performed in cases of poisoning by some toxic gases.
- Droppers with solutions to remove toxicity and improve electrolyte balance.
- Symptomatic drugs that are injected with headache, dry cough nausea, etc.
- Medications to regulate the heart, lungs.
- Diet. After the gassing power of the patient must be complete, with a high content of fiber and vitamins. Recommended fruits, vegetables, lean meats, dairy products.
Examination of the patient
To assess the severity of the patient, diagnosis and detection of complications requires detailed examination of the body. It begins at the moment of hospitalization of patient is conducted in parallel with the provision of assistance and treatment.
The main components of diagnosis in poisoning by gases:
- General full blood count is needed to detect anemia;
- urinalysis done to rule out kidney damage by toxic substances;
- a blood gas is needed to determine the degree of hypoxia;
- biochemical analysis of blood is done to evaluate function of internal organs and detection of electrolyte abnormalities in the blood;
- review chest x-ray is needed to evaluate the degree of destruction by the gases of the lung tissue;
- peakflowmetry – study, which reveals abnormalities of breathing.
- electrocardiography is performed to detect arrhythmias or other cardiac abnormalities.
- ultrasound examination of internal organs are shown to exclude a pathology of kidneys, liver, pancreas and gall bladder.
First aid for poisoning gases is carried out in an environment with unpolluted air. Before the arrival of ambulance the patient must provide a breath of fresh air and to give a drink of water or tea. The physicians who have arrived on a call, conduct a rapid assessment of the patient, provide first aid and hospitalityat it soon or Toxicological intensive care unit, where he will receive treatment.