Food poisoning of microbial origin
Classification and symptoms of microbial food poisoning
The poisoning of food may be associated with the presence of bacteria that can produce toxins outside the human body. There are about 30 types of such microorganisms. They are stable in the environment, spread quickly and are able to multiply, forming a multimillion-dollar prison in just a few hours. Food poisoning of microbial origin occur due to eating contaminated foods, in violation of the rules of storage and realization.
The mechanism of development of bacterial poisoning
Consider what germs cause human food poisoning. The most common microorganisms:
- the Escherichia;
- Citrobacter, Enterobacter.
For food poisoning is characterized by the fecal-oral route. To cause the content of bacteria in foods must be 108 microbial cells. Such a large infectious dose can be formed in foods which are the perfect breeding ground for their reproduction.
The high content of germs in the products does not affect their organoleptic properties-taste, color, smell. Therefore, people consume these products without knowing their danger. This is especially true of the food which is not subjected to heat treatment.
Being in the food, bacteria begin to produce toxins. Once in the gastrointestinal tract, lead to inflammation of the mucosa of the small intestine, develops intoxication. Dispersion of microbes in the body does not occur, the pathological process is limited only by the intestine.
The clinical picture of microbial poisoning
Since the bacteria in the body before the first signs of poisoning takes a few hours, maximum a day. In rare cases this period is extended, or shortened (poisoning by S. aureus may occur after 30 minutes). Symptoms of poisoning, regardless of the type of the pathogen are of the same character.
Signs of intoxication in microbial food poisoning:
- high body temperature of 39-40 degrees, chills;
- severe weakness;
- pale skin;
- body aches.
Signs of gastroenteritis food poisoning:
- repeated vomiting, relief after her short-lived;
- profuse diarrhea – liquid stool, watery, may be with mucus, blood, green in color, has an odor, frequency is 15-20 times a day;
- pain in the epigastric region, the abdomen (near the navel), cramping.
Signs of dehydration in cases of poisoning:
- dry mouth;
- the decrease in daily diuresis (amount of urine produced);
- the color of the urine from the rich to dark;
- the decrease in blood pressure.
Acute poisoning can last from 12 hours to two days, in severe cases, sometimes longer. Do patients have palpitations, cyanosis of the lips and skin. In case of strong dehydration can be cramping. If you do not provide timely assistance, the kidneys are affected, which manifests a complete lack of urine, rapidly falling blood pressure, developing shock.
Complications of bacterial food poisoning often develop in young children, elderly or debilitated people, pregnant women.
Sepsis – blood poisoning, the response of the body to infection. It is an inflammation of the body. Common cause is Staphylococcus, Streptococcus. Symptoms initial stage – high fever, rapid breathing and pulse. Then develop signs of pneumonia, of peritonitis. Can form ulcers on the skin or in the organs. In severe cases, it develops into septic shock, impaired blood flow in the body at the tissue level, which leads to death.
Thrombosis of the vessels of the mesentery (film, through which the internal organs are attached to the back wall of the abdomen). In microbial food poisoning is common among patients with chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms:
- intense pain that quickly passes due to the death of nerve cells, termed «imaginary» improvement;
- intoxication due to the death of the segments of the intestine;
- absence of peristalsis;
- liquid stool with blood;
Acute cardiovascular failure if food poisoning develops against the background of the action of toxins can quickly lead to death. The disrupted myocardium, develops pulmonary edema, acute renal failure, cardiogenic shock.
Toxic shock – the most critical condition for food poisoning. Its development is connected with the decay of microorganisms and the release of huge amounts of toxins.
- The initial stage – fever, chills, motor activity, agitation, pale skin. Blood pressure normal, has slight shortness of breath.
- Stage moderate – increasing deterioration, in place of the excitement comes confusion, until he lost consciousness. The temperature is reduced, the paleness increases, there is a blue tinge to the skin. Pressure falls to 70-80 mm Hg. article, reduced urine output, anuria occurs. Under the skin, on mucous membranes and internal organs appear hemorrhage.
- Severe – the patient is unconscious, skin is blue, cold due to a sharp drop in body temperature. The pulse on the ulnar Vienna is missing. Pressure below 70 mm Hg. article, is not always determined.
Any complication of food poisoning demands urgent resuscitation.
Treatment of poisoning by food contaminated by bacteria
Microbial food poisoning are treated in the normal way. The first is to do a gastric lavage with warm solution of potassium permanganate or sodium. That the procedure was most effective, it is performed the first few hours after exposure but not later than 12 hours. Lavage with a probe to do until the washings are clean.
To restore the water-salt balance is prescribed oral rehydration therapy. If the patient has a mild degree of poisoning (loss of water does not exceed 3% of body weight), the solutions prescribed for oral – oralit, regidron, tsitraglyukosolan. Despite the strong thirst patients, saline solutions need to take fractional, up to 1 liter per hour. This speed provides the suction efficiency and do not induce vomiting.
In severe cases of food poisoning saline solutions are introduced intravenously. Drugs – Trisol, lactitol, chlosol, kvartasol. The amount of the injected solution depends on the condition of the patient. Per hour intravenous infusion, the patient may receive up to 3 liters of fluid.
Detoxification therapy removes toxins, eliminates the symptoms of poisoning. Drugs – gemodez, reopoligljukin, albumin.
When pronounced symptoms of gastroenteritis appoint:
- chelators – smectite, sorbex, enterosgel;
- astringents, powders, consisting of calcium carbonate, bismuth nitrate;
- spazmolitiki – but-shpa, spasma, drotaverine;
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – ibuprofen, diclofenac, indometacin;
- eubiotics to maintain normal microflora bifidumbakterin, laktobakterin, atsilakt;
Patients with signs of immunodeficiency (it is often children under one year and elderly people), in which the treatment does not cause improvement prescribe antibiotics:
Discharged patients after complete clinical recovery and in the presence of double negative results of bacteriological analysis of feces.
Botulism as a food poisoning
Botulism is a dangerous infectious disease that causes severe poisoning of the body. It belongs to food poisoning. The etiology of the development of anaerobic bacteria, which is a parasite in the environment without oxygen. It highlights the powerful botulinum toxin that paralyze the nervous system. Microorganism resistant to gastric juice, for hours absorbed in the blood, affects the entire departments of the CNS.
The source of infection – foods that are contaminated with spores of bacteria and stored in anaerobic conditions. First and foremost, it preserves the home or in industrial production (mushrooms, vegetables, fruits). Also, the risk of poisoning present smoked sausage or meat, dried, salted fish. Organoleptic properties are not changed.
The sick person is not dangerous to others, the infection is not transmitted through everyday life.
The disease is an acute onset with the development of symptoms of food poisoning – abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea. Do not last more than a day and pass. Replaced by neurological symptoms:
- blurred vision fog or mesh in front of the eyes, double vision, drooping eyelids, poor reaction of pupils to light, strabismus;
- difficulty swallowing, hoarseness;
- sudden muscle weakness;
- respiratory failure – compression in the chest, shortness of breath, shallow breathing, partial paralysis of the respiratory muscles.
Breathing is a frightening symptom that warns about the severe botulism, often with a poor outcome.
Treatment begins with the patient washed stomach regardless how much time has passed since the poisoning with poor-quality food. Washed with boiled water, but better than soda solution as alkali to partially neutralize the effects of toxins. Put high cleansing enema. Appoint sorbents. Spend a powerful detoxification therapy.
The basis of a successful outcome is not dependent introduction protivobotulinicheskoy serum, 1 or 2 doses.
- treatment, improves nerve conduction, the guanidine and / hydrochloride, neostigmine;
- the antibiotics chloramphenicol, ampicillin;
- cardiotonic drugs.
Prevention of food microbial poisoning
In the first place in the prevention of poisoning of bacterial origin is the monitoring of poultry farms, meat processing plants, dairy plants. It is sanitary, epidemiological and veterinary services.
Individual prevention of food poisoning caused by bacteria:
- personal hygiene;
- the implementation of the rules of heat treatment products;
- proper storage of food;
- compliance with the rules of home canning;
- not to use suspicious canned goods and other food products package integrity, bloating.
To reduce the risk of microbial food poisoning, interventions are needed to improve social and environmental living conditions, to organize educational work with the population.
Microorganisms that cause food poisoning, treat uncontrollable infections. This means that they are not exist vaccinate. Therefore, each person needs to take responsibility for your health, watch your diet, strengthen the immune system.