Food poisoning: symptoms and treatment
The symptoms and treatment of foodborne diseases
Food poisoning is an infectious disease occurring in acute form. Manifested in the use of foods containing bacteria and toxic substances resulting from their activity. Most often the disease is detected during the warm time of the year. Penetrating into the human body through food, microorganisms synthesize substances that are dangerous to humans. Infection similar symptoms with other types of intoxication, treatment is largely the same. When properly selected scheme of therapy, the pathology does not cause any complications, but the untreated, can lead to unpredictable consequences.
Foodborne illness is a disease of the digestive tract, resulting in the introduction of pathogens synthesize toxins, affecting the upper parts of the stomach. The most dangerous are the enterotoxins that multiply in the meat and fish dishes, fruits and vegetables, as they are able to survive at high temperatures. That is why before use, it is recommended to wash and thoroughly heat treated.
Pathogens causing the diseases are microorganisms trapped in the body and toxins:
- Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteria, toxic substances that affect the intestines. Most often found in food for a long time left at room temperature. It is in this environment aureus are capable of active reproduction.
- Bacillus cereus. These agents of poisoning are found in nedoveriem rice. Considered one of the most dangerous microorganisms, as they are able to withstand repeated heat treatment.
- Clostridium perfringens enters the human body when there is insufficient heat treatment of meat, poultry, legumes. Usually infection with bacteria triggers the disease is mild, lasts for more than 24 hours, which is able to pass on their own.
In addition, food can enter the following micro-organisms and their waste products:
- Escherichia coli;
- streptococci and other.
Symptoms of poisoning can occur in humans, not only because of intoxication by toxic substances, but also as a result of disintegration of the bacteria themselves embedded in food.
The spread of the disease are divided as follows:
- gastrotechnika infection;
- gastroenterologicheskii character of the course;
- gastroenterokoliticheskaya for.
According to the degree of intensity has the following classification:
- mild infection;
- moderate severity;
- severe course.
The presence of complications in the disease process, there are:
- uncomplicated occurrence;
- a complicated form.
Characteristically, people engaged in the food industry and having purulent disease, for example, sore throat or abrasions, can identify bacteria in the environment, household items and food. In addition, as a pathogen there may be animal feces, which contain staphylococci, streptococci and other microorganisms. Penetrating into the soil and water bodies, a bacterium often affects agricultural production, becoming a potential threat to human health.
The source of infection can be as people and animals, and other surrounding objects – the soil and water. The mechanism of transmission of microorganisms – fecal-oral.
Most often the pathogen enters through food: many cases of food poisoning was after eating poor-quality food contaminated with bacteria or through dirty hands in the process of cooking.
In addition, bacteria can infiltrate the body with raw water or products in violation of the conditions of their storage, which in turn provokes the activation of the pathogen and the accumulation of toxic substances and metabolites in internal organs.
Often the infection is the group nature and occurs in an acute form. Most often, outbreaks of these infections occur in members of the same family, in children and in adult groups. More susceptible to the disease are infants and newborns. In addition, infection infection affects people who have had recent surgery, prolonged use of antibiotic means, as well as having various disorders of stomach function.
The pathological process is characterised by an acute course and begins suddenly, about 30-40 minutes after eating contaminated food. One of the first characteristic sign is foul-smelling odor of stool, repeated vomiting that persist for several hours.
In severe cases, the patient has observed convulsions of the lower extremities, febrile syndrome, sepsis, and even death.
Food poisoning may occur in simultaneously poisoned people at different times and may be different symptoms: all patients have different immune system.
The incubation period is about 16 hours. The main symptoms of the disease are:
- increasing the temperature to 38-39 °C, but in some cases the febrile syndrome may not occur;
- pain in the head;
- the loss of strength.
The symptoms of the diseases occur under the influence of toxins, stimulating the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. One of the obvious manifestations include:
- intense nausea;
- gag reflex, after which, as a rule, the patient feels relief.
Diarrhea is characterized by uchenymi urge to bowel movement and may occur up to 10 times a day, watery stool. Often the pathological process is accompanied by painful symptoms in the abdomen, diarrhea and vomiting occur simultaneously or independent from each other.
In addition, some patients may show other signs of poisoning:
- bursting sensation in the muscles;
These symptoms usually lead to a General exhaustion, pale skin, cold extremities. Most often, the disease lasts no more than 1-3 days, after which symptoms gradually subside.
Other signs of infection include: dry mouth, intense thirst, rapid pulse.
Depending on the type of agent, the pathology may have some features:
- With the introduction of Staphylococcus characterized by an acute onset of the pathological process, the lack of fever and diarrhea. In the early stages marked convulsive syndromes, cyanotic color of the skin. These clinical manifestations do not last more than 2 days. Aureus most often does not cause severe disorders of water-salt balance in the human body.
- With the defeat of Clostridium in a patient seen streaks of blood in the stool. Clostridia is characterized by an acute gastroenteritis with symptoms of poisoning and excessive fluid loss. The bacteria affect the small intestine, causing intense diarrhea, which is characterized by an unpleasant odor of feces. In addition, the infection provokes an increase of body temperature. Usually the disease has a short period of occurrence and leaves no serious complications. However, a weakened organism of the patient may develop cardiovascular failure, hypovolemic shock, sepsis. At the time neokazanii help the skin of the patient acquires a yellow color, a strong gag reflex and diarrhoea can occur up to 20 times a day. In addition, may show mucous and blood streaks in the stool, enlarged liver and spleen. The main complications of infection is the progression of the pathology with violation of cardiac rhythm and peritonitis.
- When cerese have symptoms of gastroenteritis. Most often, such as occurs in mild form, however, negative consequences can occur in the elderly and individuals with immune deficiency.
Identifying the causative agent, it is possible to assign adequate treatment taking into account individual characteristics.
Diseases in children
Intestinal diseases in children do not have significant differences from similar diseases in adults. In the high-risk group are children attending childcare.
Often infectious pathology revealed the penetration of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli in child’s body during insufficient compliance with sanitary standards and personal hygiene adults working in pre-school and school institutions, as well as in the family. Pathogens apply to subjects which the child pulls in a mouth, or together with food.
Often outbreaks are registered at the disregard for older people, which are necessary sanitary rules for handling and storage of food. Most often such cases occur in summer camps, hospitals, kindergartens.
Infants suffer the disease. Characteristic signs of infection are: nausea, urge to vomiting, diarrhea, pain in the navel area. One of the dangerous consequences is the dysbiosis of the intestinal system. Newborns may manifest a festering rash, stomatitis, and to arise a state of shock provoked by bacteria and viruses. In these cases, the baby requires immediate medical care.
To establish an infection in various ways. The main methods include differentiated and laboratory methods of research.
It should be noted that food poisoning have similar symptoms with other infectious diseases, e.g., salmonellosis, enteritis, cholera and other, however in pathological processes, there are still some differences.
Infection is diagnosed by the detection of the pathogen from feces of the patient, vomit, the wash liquids of the stomach. Also, are the cultures on the different nutrient media and are determined toxicomanie characteristics of bacteria. However, it is not always such an analysis can be carried out.
The detected microorganisms can not be the causative agent. The most effective method is a serological test, identication of the pathogen from foods that used people, as well as other people who ate the same food as the patient.
A measure of the manifestations of the disease is a gastric lavage to help remove residues of contaminated foods and toxic substances from the internal organs. For this the patient should drink 2 liters of water with solution of soda or potassium permanganate, and then artificially induce vomiting. Next, you need to provide infected with a hot drink and any adsorbent, for example, POLYSORB or activated carbon. If you experience intense cramping pain of any antispasmodic, for example, but-shpa.
In addition, to effectively clean the stomach and intestines by using an enema and use of rehydration solution, which compensates the excessive loss of fluid. In case of serious dehydration such solutions are administered intravenously.
Severe disease requires the use of antibiotics. After the suppression of the gag reflex and diarrhea appointed by enzymes: Pancreatin, amylase, contribute to the stabilization of the process of digestion and probiotics that normalize digestive system.
Food poisoning requires immediate replenishment of fluid and electrolyte balance, failure of which occurs when a strong loss of fluid. That is why it is recommended that the patient drink plenty of liquids.
Binding of drugs can be taken Kashirskogo powder: one sachet three times a day. To protect against damage to the mucosal surfaces of the intestinal system is used, smectite, previously dissolved in water. To stop diarrhea, use of indomethacin: 50 mg 3 times a day. In some instances, calcium supplements, and medications that increase the rate of absorption of water and electrolytes, for example, octreotide. A doctor can be administered antiseptic preparations: intentaban 1-2 tablets several times a day.
The use of appropriate antibiotics in severe forms of the disease. Most commonly prescribed ampicillin and chloramphenicol young children, and if there is a threat of sepsis. In these cases parenteral administration.
In acute and intensive manifestations of the patient is advised to follow a special diet that includes certain foods.
When starved, the patient must refrain from eating during the day. After the acute symptoms are prescribed a diet №4, implying the use of the following products:
- bread wholemeal;
- skim the broth;
- lean meats and fish;
- lungs dairy products;
- scrambled eggs, steamed;
- steamed vegetable dishes;
- pureed cereals;
- jellies and other.
Should be excluded from the diet muffin, fatty broths, meats and fish with high fat, salty and smoked foods, hard-boiled eggs, pasta, legumes, raw vegetables and fruits, jams, caffeinated drinks and soda.
Food poisoning cannot be treated with medicines for diarrhea, for example, Imodium or loperamide, which contribute to the slow excretion of the contents of the intestinal system. This may lead to poisoning by toxic substances and deterioration of the disease.
Most often, the recovery of the patient occurs within two to three days, but in some cases may develop infectious-toxic shock and other serious complications and dysbacteriosis.
Abundant bowel movements and fluid loss can trigger a decrease in the number of beneficial bacteria that inhabit the intestinal system and, as a consequence, lead to dysbacteriosis. Often, such a condition manifested by chronic diarrhea, and involves the use of special therapy.
- Dehydration is one of the serious consequences of infection. Manifested by excessive loss of fluids resulting from diarrhea and vomiting.
It is possible to allocate 4 stages of dehydration:
- First degree is characterized by a loss of 1-3% of the weight of the patient. In this case, patient feels intense dry mouth.
- The second degree is manifested by the following symptoms: loss of liquid is 4-6%, excessive thirst, hoarseness, Perissinotto mouth and nose, a small blue lips and fingertips, tremors of the limbs.
- The third degree of dehydration set in case of significant deterioration of patient’s condition, wrinkled skin, loss of liquid is 7-9% of body weight, convulsions, labored urination. If you have any of these symptoms required hospitalization of the patient.
- The fourth degree is observed in rare cases and occurs most often in cholera. Characterised by loss of 10% or more of the liquid. It should be noted that poisoning is not accompanied by 3-4 degrees of dehydration.
- Among other complications may be noted acute abdomen, characterized by thrombosis of the mesenteric vessels, and the circulatory disorder in the brain, myocardial infarction, pneumonia.
If symptoms do not stop after two days, you need treatment in the hospital setting: against the background of dehydration and General exhaustion can manifest other pathology.
Prevention of disease is the sanitary and hygienic control of catering facilities, prevention of contamination of food by microorganisms and their multiplication in food.
People working in catering, you must comply with sanitary regulations during food preparation, storage and transportation of food and personal hygiene.
Every person do not forget about washing your hands before eating and after using the restroom. Furthermore, it should be excluded from the diet products with expired shelf life, since some microorganisms can survive at low temperature.
Are classified as potentially dangerous products, which are shelf life.
Food is consumed heat-processed meat and fish products, carefully washed vegetables, fruits and herbs. When visiting countries with a high level of intestinal diseases should be careful to only eat freshly prepared food, to eliminate raw vegetables, unpeeled fruit, drink filtered and boiled water. To avoid infections, you should drink water only in sealed containers. This is especially true for travelers making long trips, small children and the elderly.