Foodborne illness and intoxication
What is food poisoning
Foodborne diseases and intoxication (IPT) is a pathological condition in which food poisoning has developed as the result of ingestion of toxins produced by bacteria. Moreover, these microorganisms are not dangerous for the patient, cause the intoxication they produced toxins. In this article we reviewed the main causes and symptoms of poisoning, principles of provision of first aid and treatment of these diseases.
Main reasons for PTI
Toxins produced by bacteria can get into the human body with the spoiled food. They are formed during the putrefaction, spoilage, during storage in the wrong conditions. Toxins are transmitted to humans by the fecal-oral route. In contrast to intestinal infections, the sick person is not dangerous and infectious to others.
For food poisoning characterized polyetiological, they can be caused by toxins produced by different bacteria. Most often, the PTI develops due to intoxication by toxins produced by the following microorganisms:
- Staphylococcus aureus. This microorganism is very common. For its active propagation and production of toxins they need a favourable temperature conditions and «delicious» nutrient medium. For example, he feels comfortable in protein confectionery creams, salads, mayonnaise, fast food. The toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus predominantly affects the mucous membrane of the intestines, leading to loose stools, intoxication.
- A Clostridium perfringens. She likes to dwell in insufficiently cooked meat and fish products, bean dishes. The toxins of this bacterium does not lead to severe poisoning, the symptoms can disappear within the first day.
- Bacillus cereus. This organism multiplies in cooked dishes stored in a warm environment, not in the refrigerator. It is especially common in boiled rice. The toxin produced by this bacterium, thermostable, does not disappear by boiling.
Infected by the toxins food can be absolutely normal in taste and appearance. To prevent such poisoning is necessary to observe all the rules of heat treatment and storage of food products.
The clinical picture
The first symptoms and signs of intoxication develop during the first 2-4 hours after consumption of spoiled and contaminated by toxins of food products. If their concentration in eaten is very large, the clinical manifestations of poisoning may even occur in the first 10-15 minutes after a meal.
The severity of poisoning depends on the amount eaten spoiled food. The more toxins get into the body, the harder and sharper will be affected.
The typical symptoms of PTI:
- Pain in the abdomen. They can be localized in a particular area, for example, in the stomach, subcostal arc of the intestine. You may also experience pain intestinal spasms, colic, provoked by increased flatulence.
- Nausea and subsequent vomiting. Stomach the irritation of its mucosa by toxins trying to get rid of them with the help of the emetic attack.
- Increased discharge of gases, accompanied by painful intestinal spasms.
- Loose stools, diarrhea.
- Can rise the temperature to 38-39 degrees, its growth shows a pronounced intoxication syndrome.
- Dizziness and headache.
- Strong General weakness, fatigue.
- The decrease in blood pressure, rapid pulse are the signs of a massive fluid loss along with vomit and diarrhea.
- On the background electrolyte shift and severe dehydration can cause seizures.
The basics of first aid
With the development of symptoms of acute PTI is better not to risk the health of the patient and not to self-medicate. With the development of massive and repeated diarrhea, uncontrollable vomiting, signs of dehydration and high temperature you should call an ambulance. If the patient’s condition is not broken, he feels relatively normal, unable to contact your therapist in the clinic.
Waiting for doctors, you can start yourself to help a poisoned person. The table below presents the principal components of first aid for the development of foodborne diseases.
|The name of the procedure||The methodology of the||The nuances, caveats|
|Gastric lavage||After eating it is digested in the gastric cavity for 2-6 hours. In order to bring it from the stomach, the patient should gulp drink 2-3 glasses of water and induce vomiting by pushing on the tongue.||The procedure is not carried out when disturbed the minds of the intoxicated person, or when onset of vomiting of a dark color.|
|Enema||Is performed by a special pear. To do it in simple boiled water at room temperature.||At home it is not recommended to mix water with any medications or herbal decoctions.|
|Sorbents||You can use any drug from this group. For example:
||Before taking this medication, you need to check its expiration date, read the instructions carefully, paying attention to dosage and method of medication.|
|Drink plenty of liquids||You can drink a tablespoon or alkaline mineral water, sweet tea.
All the drink should be neutral temperature and not have gas.
|In order not to provoke repeated vomiting attacks need to drink slowly and in small SIPS.|
The treatment of foodborne diseases can be performed at home or in hospital. Dehydrated patients with pronounced electrolyte shift and strong intoxication are hospitalized ambulance to the hospital.
Remember that self-medication of PTI is dangerous for health. Even with the therapy at home, you should consult your doctor and carefully follow all his recommendations.
Treatment of PTI consists of the following components:
- Diet. You can’t eat fried, fatty, spicy and smoked. For the period of treatment should abandon juices, sodas, and alcohol.
- Rehydration therapy. It can be administered orally, which the patient drinks plenty of fluids, or parenteral (intravenously).
- Drugs from the group of absorbents, enzymes, antacids, antispasmodics.
Food poisoning is caused by toxins produced by bacteria. People can get sick from eating spoiled food and poor quality product. Symptoms develop during the first several hours after a meal. When the first signs of PTI need to seek medical help. This disease is dangerous the rapid development of dehydration and electrolyte shift. Do not self-medicate and follow all medical advice.