How is intestinal infection from person to person

What the medium is an intestinal infection

Intestinal infection is one of the most common diseases, which sooner or later faces people of any age. The term «intestinal infection» refers to a group of viral illnesses of the gastrointestinal tract, which are accompanied by manifestations of General intoxication.

As shown by medical statistics, intestinal infections, in some cases, it ends very sadly for 2.5 million people worldwide were fatal. And most of them are children.

The main cause of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract is the penetration into the human organism of various viruses, bacteria and other pathogens. How is intestinal infection from person to person and how can you avoid infection?

Features of the disease

Regardless of the route of transmission of intestinal infections, the disease develops rapidly. The first signs can appear within 1-3 days after infection.

The main causative agents of the disease are considered to be rotavirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, rhinovirus or norovirus infections, bacteria. In most cases of the intestinal infection can affect the small intestine or the stomach or both organs at once.

All intestinal infections are conventionally divided into two groups: viral and bacterial. The viral infection is transmitted between people by contact-household, airborne, bacterial, in turn, penetrates the intestine and gastrointestinal tract through eating insufficiently cooked contaminated drinking water, as well as neglect of the rules of personal hygiene.

Intestinal infection can be identified by the following symptoms:

  • sharp painful cramps in the abdomen;
  • vomiting and nausea;
  • in some cases you may receive severe headache turning into a migraine;
  • irregularity, which is often manifested by diarrhea and can lead to dehydration. In some cases, you may experience prolonged constipation;
  • poor appetite, which can lead to permanent loss of body weight;
  • the weakening of immune forces of organism, worsening of sleep;
  • itching, appearance of rashes.

In some cases, the disease can occur in the early stages is completely asymptomatic.

In children intestinal infection often accompanied by fever, which is why many parents perceive the first signs for SARS. A little later the symptoms include sharp pain spasms in the abdomen, and irregularity.

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Intestinal infection of viral type is extremely contagious – it can be triggered by even a minimal number of viral agents. In order to infect a healthy person, enough 15-100 virus particles. In such cases, the carrier of the disease should undergo timely and proper treatment, and all the surrounding should carefully observe rules of personal hygiene.

The stages of transmission of enteric infections

The main mechanism of transmission of intestinal infections consists of three consecutive stages, which are as follows:

 

  • The first stage is the causative agent of intestinal infection «leaves» the infected organism.
  • The second stage is conditionally pathogenic microorganism in the environment surrounding the person.
  • The third stage is the pathogenic agent penetrates into the most weak and malleable body.

From an infected organism, the pathogen can emerge in several ways – if he lives in the intestine, he can leave the cavity with fecal or vomit. If the causative agent is rotavirus origin, it is localized in the upper respiratory tract and comes out during sneezing or coughing.

The mechanism of transmission

The main mechanism of infection in the intestinal infection is divided into three types:

  1. Contact-household.
  2. Airborne.
  3. Fecal-oral.

Contact-household infection involves the use of various household items. In addition, pathogens can reside on the skin in small abrasions and scratches, as well as in the oral cavity.

Airborne droplets people become infected, even during normal intercourse with the infected partner. During the conversation, the ASF selects particles of saliva that form in the air a specific infectious aerosol.

When released into the air bacteria can dwell in it for hours and spread approximately 2 m from the main source of infection. When airborne transmission, even the most strict observance of rules of personal hygiene will not be sufficient to prevent infection.

Fecal-oral route of infection

Fecal-oral route of spread of intestinal infection is the most common and involves the removal of the causative agent from an infected organism in the process of defecation. On pathogenic microorganisms due to insects or poor personal hygiene penetrate in the digestive system of a healthy person.

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When the fecal-oral way of infection possible ways of infection:

  • Neglect rules of personal hygiene – unwashed hands, the presence in the premises of insects or rodents, contaminated cooking utensils.
  • Insufficient heat treatment of food – it is known that pathogenic microorganisms are killed only at temperatures above 70 °C. this applies Particularly to the processing of meat and fish products because the animals and fish were most often consumed water from contaminated waters.
  • Improper storage of food products, e.g. storage on one shelf of the refrigerator meat and ready meals. In this case pathogens from raw meat penetrate into other products, and then flows directly into the human digestive tract.
  • Use stale or inferior food.
  • Long-term storage of ready meals without a refrigerator, which can lead to rapid proliferation of pathogens.

Intestinal infection aktiviziruyutsya especially in summer – hot and humid weather conditions contribute to the enhanced proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms. This is due to the fact that heat food are highly perishable, and therefore storing them without refrigeration can lead to intestinal diseases. The greatest danger posed by meat and fish products, fresh vegetables and fruits.

In most cases, pathogens get to the food due to the insects. Also a huge danger bear products insufficiently cooked, unwashed vegetables and fruit.

Carriers of intestinal diseases can be not only people but also Pets, birds, rodents, insects. If a pet is a source of infection, pathogens can easily penetrate foods, milk, cheese, eggs.

Drinking water as the source of infection

Very often, pathogens are transmitted through drinking water. In natural waters often animal faeces, waste from industrial plants or sewage water. As a result, the use of raw, unboiled running water can cause intestinal infections.

For fecal-oral way of infection of intestinal infection is not only the infection in the process of consumption of contaminated drinking water, but when swimming in such a pond, if a person will dive in and swallow the water.

How to avoid infection intestinal infection through drinking water?

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  • In any case not to drink unboiled tap water.
  • Be sure to use a quality filtration system drinking water, although this is not an absolute guarantee.
  • Most often the likelihood of intestinal infection is increased in the case of visiting tropical resorts, and the other points stay, and a sudden change to climatic conditions.
  • Do not drink water from street pumps or wells.

To prevent the development of intestinal infections, you need to watch out for bathing in public places and in any case not to swim in prohibited or unequipped for this water.

Prevention of intestinal infection

For the prevention of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract should be thoroughly follow a few rules. The key condition is regular washing of hands with soap and water. The hands should be washed not only after walking in the street or using the toilet and after handling meat or fish products, cleaning fruits and vegetables. In the case of travel need to use special antibacterial sprays or disinfectant wipes.

All berries, fruits and vegetables should be washed thoroughly before eating several times. In any case can not buy fruit and vegetable products with defects – cracks or dents. All food must be stored in the refrigerator, in different departments.

Adherence to simple preventive rules will help to prevent the development of intestinal infections.