How to pass a stool in the dysentery, salmonellosis and dispropo
How to identify dysentery
Analysis of dysentery allows to detect the presence of the organism Shigella – bacteria that affect the colon. Shigellosis is an infectious disease occurring in acute or chronic form. For successful treatment of the infection needs to be diagnosed.
How to identify dysentery
Suspicion of the disease can cause some symptoms, particularly diarrhea. However, to fully confirm the diagnosis will help the laboratory study. For the detection of intestinal infection are used:
- General analysis of blood;
- research stool;
- the study of bacterial microflora.
- endoscopic examination of the rectum;
- laboratory methods of diagnosis.
Indications are various pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract accompanied by prolonged diarrhea. In addition, diagnosis is carried out prior to the upcoming hospitalization in a hospital. Other evidence is the presence of diseases: urethritis, bladder inflammation, cervicitis.
The study of blood
Most often the bacteria are deposited on the mucous surfaces of the intestinal system, where they suppress immune cells. In severe cases, the pathogens penetrate into the lymph nodes and the circulatory system. However, this phenomenon is transient and has no special value in the diagnosis.
Blood examination was performed to detect possible complications and assess the overall health of the patient.
Blood work shows:
- Increase the speed of sedimentation of red blood cells. When intestinal infections, indicators of erythrocyte sedimentation rate is increased two or three times and can testify to the inflammatory process in internal organs.
- An increase in white blood cells of more than 9,0*109/l.
- The shift of leukocyte formula to the left. In the presence of Shigella neutrophils migrate to the places of infestation, and engage in an active fight, and then die. Immature neutrophils in large numbers enter the bloodstream, leading to increased number of band neutrophils and decrease of segmented forms.
- The increase of monocytes in the blood. Macrophages are able to engulf pathogens and to initiate the formation of monocytes, thereby increasing their quantity in the blood.
Examination of feces
Analysis of the feces on dysentery – the main method of diagnosis, capable of detecting any deviations from normal values. With the diagnosis of the chair to evaluate the features, structure, impurities in the stool.
It is not necessary to collect the material after the enema, rectal suppository application, and after the use of laxatives, and products containing iron.
To detect infection using a stool test for Salmonella and dispropo. For accurate detection of medical centers use PCR, allowing to establish the remnants of the DNA of pathogenic bacteria.
As a rule, in the presence of dysentery the consistency of the stool thick, pasty or liquid stool may be unformed. Also prevalent in the feces of mucus, the color can be both transparent and streaked with blood, while the stool becomes pinkish or red. In addition, the chair can detect leukocytes and epithelial cells in large quantity.
Screening for dysentery is done by taking the patient’s biological material and its inoculation on different nutrient media. After some time, identifies the Shigella that allow you to put or refute the diagnosis.
Bacteriological diagnosis is possible to determine the species and subspecies of the pathogen to determine the most appropriate treatment. In addition, this method of research will establish the sensitivity of the bacteria to the antibiotic means that will help you choose necessary drugs for the treatment of dysentery.
Often, specialists prescribe a rectal swab on dysentery, which carry sterile disposable device. The fence material is carried out in the anal area, after which it is sown a special environment.
Smear on dispropo and salmonellosis produces the health worker: when the patient is put to one side with a divorced buttocks.
Serological analysis is one of the types of laboratory diagnosis to detect antibodies in the blood, and which you can establish the kind of pathogen. Most often used reaction of indirect hemagglutination to detect bacteria in approximately the 5th day of the disease.
To assess the state of the gastrointestinal tract is recommended to undergo genetic studies to identify the propensity of a patient to dysentery. Particularly relevant this type of survey if you have blood relatives with the following pathologies:
- inflammations of the intestinal system;
- ulcerative lesions of the digestive tract;
- oncological diseases of the digestive system;
- of irritable bowel syndrome.
Such diagnostics allows to detect genetic diseases and to estimate the probability of disease in the carrier.
In the anus of the patient is inserted into the endoscope, which examine the colon. Most often the infection is accompanied by inflammation, expansion of small blood vessels, increased permeability of the walls, hyperemia and swelling of mucous surfaces, as well as the acquisition of their bright red color.
In addition, the surface can be detected erosions and small hemorrhages, as well as a dense grayish coating. With sigmoidoscopy reveal shallow ulcers and dead cells on mucous surfaces. Pathology is often accompanied by deformity and atrophy of the mucous membranes of the intestine, which is clearly visible by the endoscope.
Differential diagnosis to differentiate dysentery from diseases that have similar symptoms, accompanied by various lesions digestive system and a General poisoning of the organs.
Differential diagnosis of dysentery is carried out together with other diarrheal illnesses: salmonellosis, E. coli, amebiasis, cholera, toxinfection, paratyphoid fever, typhoid fever and others.
Unlike cholera, characterised by abundant water stool, dysentery is peculiar scanty stool streaked with blood and mucus. For salmonellosis characteristic greenish tinge of the stool with undigested pieces of food.
Dysentery – a disease which infected fecal-oral route. To identify the causative agent used bacteriological and serological methods of investigation.
Bacteriological methods to detect Shigella in fecal matter. Most often, the analysis is carried out several times to not only identify the pathogen and to distinguish the disease from other intestinal pathologies, accompanied by acute diarrhea. That’s why the prep is of great importance for obtaining correct results.
Microbiological diagnosis of dysentery involves the study of blood, feces, urine, bone marrow, bile.
Sowing is carried out as soon as possible after the sampling of biological material. If this is not possible, stool is put in a container with glycerin mixture in which they can be stored for 12-24 hours. You can also take material by means of a rectal tube that is inserted into the rectum.
Before examination of the stool is necessary to exclude the use of antibiotic drugs: drugs can smear analysis indicators and distort the data obtained.
If necessary, taking medicines should consult with a specialist who will help to find the optimal solution.
How to take the test? Before the examination you must follow some recommendations:
- cal should be freshly picked;
- if you suspect dysentery pay special attention to blood veins and mucous in the stool, which are the most informative;
- it is forbidden to pass feces with a small amount of urine or menstrual blood.
New sterile container must be filled with biomaterial to 30%, which is approximately one teaspoon.
Before undergoing diagnosis should not be used laxatives, which can cause incorrect data: Kal pass during natural defecation.
Passing sigmoidoscopy do not require any specific training. The procedure is painless, does not threaten the health of the patient, has no special restrictions.
However, the analysis should be deferred to another time when the patient has cracks and inflammation in the area of the anus.
Before blood do not take medications for 14 days before analysis. Forbidden to eat salty, fatty, fried, spicy dishes, alcoholic drinks. The blood on an empty stomach in the morning. You should eliminate the Smoking, physical activity, stress.
Before passing urine do not take antibiotics and diuretics. The patient is advised to follow the normal drinking regime. Do not hold urine during menstruation. It is forbidden to use fruit and vegetables that affect the color of urine, for example, beets and carrots.
The most effective is the morning urine collected in a sterile container. The required volume is 50-100 ml.
To establish the diagnosis requires the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the feces. Normally, the chair should not be present the following bacteria:
- Trichomonas and others.
If the analysis revealed a pathogenic bacteria, but the patient no typical signs of intestinal infection, it is considered a carrier.
In normal healthy person identified about 15 species of bacteria: some species of stafilokkov, enterococci, lactobacilli and other. The analysis should identify enterobacteria and staphylococci.
The number of bifidobacteria should not be more than 1010, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, enterococci exceeded 108, peptostreptokokkov more than 106, clostridia, with more than 105, candid – more than 104. If the figures are exceeded, the patient is diagnosed with dysbiosis.
Bacterial analysis is carried out repeatedly. Before taking the necessary hygienic treatment anus.
The results of the analysis on intestinal group will be ready in about 5 days.
Many scientific dissertations confirm the danger of the disease. Acute intestinal infections take the leading place among infectious diseases. Dysentery affects the large intestine can cause extraintestinal complications, bacterial overgrowth, peritonitis, bleeding. Therefore, an important role is the correct diagnosis. The improvement of modern laboratory methods of examination allows you to rule out errors in diagnosis.