Intestinal infection: symptoms, signs and treatment
Types and characteristics of intestinal infections
Intestinal infection is a concept that brings together many different diseases. The reason for their appearance becomes viruses and bacteria and also toxins that are produced in the course of their life. With this problem at least once in life faced by almost every person. In order to avoid such unpleasant situations, it is necessary to understand the features of the disease, the characteristics of infection and symptoms appearing.
Intestinal infection combines about 30 diseases. They evolve under the action of pathogenic microorganisms. First and foremost there is damage to the digestive system.
Regardless of the type of the microorganism, triggering the development of the disease, intestinal infection begins acutely and have common symptoms. There are signs of General intoxication of the organism and also special manifestations, which are able to recognize pathogen problems.
Intestinal infections affect people of all ages, including infants. There are several different ways of infection. At risk are children, the elderly, persons with chronic diseases or alcoholism.
The main causes of the disease
The reason for the development of the disease is ingested pathogens. This can happen in several ways:
- Contact with dishes or food contaminated feces of rodents or insects.
- Violation of food storage. Not on the same shelf of the refrigerator to store raw meat or fish and fruits before consumption will not undergo heat treatment.
- Insufficient heat treatment of the products. Most pathogenic microorganisms are killed when heated above 70 degrees.
- Violation of a temperature mode of storage of food products. This is especially true of confectionery and meat products, milk products and prepared dishes. Under the condition of room temperature, the microorganisms pass into a phase of active reproduction.
- The use of poor quality products, which are contaminated by microorganisms.
- Consumption of contaminated water.
To prevent contamination, you should carefully monitor the quality of drinking water and food, and to observe the rules of storage and cooking.
If you are not sure about the food, you should ditch her. Even the slightest signs of damage suggests that the whole product infected and its use is dangerous to health.
What causes the disease
Penetrating into the human body, bacteria have a negative impact on mucous membranes of the intestines and stomach. Starts the inflammatory process. The localization leads to the following comorbidities:
- Enteritis – the small-bowel.
- Gastritis – inflammation of the various sections of the surface of the stomach.
- Colitis – the defeat of the walls of the colon.
- Enterocolitis – inflammation simultaneously affects multiple sections of the intestine.
- Gastro – simultaneous injury of the duodenum and the lining of the stomach.
All of the above conditions occur in an acute form. Intestinal infection becomes aggravating factor.
Classification and causative agents
Classification of intestinal infections is made by the type of microorganisms that cause disease. Release:
- Bacterial. Pathogens are bacteria. They are pathogenic or opportunistic. The first category includes microorganisms which need not be contained in the human body. When infected they immediately provoke the development of inflammation. Opportunistic bacteria live in the human body. But under certain conditions they are active replication that triggers the inflammatory process. The penetration into the body of hazardous microorganisms occurs in violation of the principles of hygiene, and the use of infected food and water.
- Virus. Inflammation occurs due to the activity of viruses. The infection is oral, appliances or air-drop way. The probability of occurrence of such infections is much higher than bacterial. The carrier of the virus becomes ill. He is dangerous to others for two to three weeks after treatment.
- Protozoal. Meet seldom enough. Infection occurs by ingestion of dirty water from infected ponds. Treatment is rather long and requires the use of specialized drugs.
Depending on the type of disease treatment programs may vary. Therefore, before to begin treatment, be sure to hold the definition of the pathogen.
Pathogens of bacterial infection
The names and types of intestinal infections often derive from the names of the pathogen. Based on the frequency of infection, list of bacterial diseases head:
- E. coli. The disease is caused by activity of Escherichia coli. There is a rapid lesions of the intestine. Most often this problem occurs in young children. Bacteria do not lose their activity for several months.
- Dysentery. The cause of intoxication becomes bacteria belonging to the genus Shigella. As they die in the human body generates a large amount of toxin. Dysentery is passed on through contact with an infected person or after eating contaminated water or food.
- Typhoid fever. Microorganisms enter the human body with water and food. With the development of the disease there is an increase in lesions in the intestine, ulcers and breaks in the wall. The danger of the disease is in the fact that its incubation period may reach two weeks.
- Salmonellosis. The causative agent is the bacterium Salmonella. Infection most often occurs after eating tainted meat, butter, eggs or milk. It’s hard to travel back in childhood. Can lead to serious complications like brain edema or renal failure.
- Cholera. Becomes the causative agent Vibrio cholerae. During the illness is severe dehydration due to continuing diarrhea and vomiting. There are cases of fatality.
- Brucellosis. Intoxication by Brucella leads to defeat not only the digestive tract but musculoskeletal, reproductive and nervous systems. Most often, the infection occurs after drinking low-quality milk products. From person to person, the organisms are not transmitted.
- Helicobacter. The impact of Helicobacter pylori leads to a serious lesion of the duodenum and other parts of the digestive system. On mucous walls can form ulcers.
- Botulism. It is a deadly disease caused by a botulinum toxin. The organisms proliferate in the absence of oxygen. Therefore, the source of infection often become home canned food, prepared with infringement of technology.
- Staph. Called the same bacteria groups pathogenic. Slow the progression of the disease is often confused with the common cold. A wrong treatment leading to complications.
Pathogens of bacterial intestinal infections multiply rapidly in the human body. The improper or untimely treatment of such diseases is the development of serious complications. Therefore, when the first symptoms should seek help from a doctor.
Viral infection of the gastrointestinal tract is not less dangerous than bacterial. There are several varieties of it:
- Enterovirus. Observed in the acute form. Primarily affects the muscular and nervous system, heart.
- Enteric hepatitis A and E. Infection occurs by drinking contaminated water, eating infected food or using dirty dishes.
- Rotavirus gastroenteritis. This disease is also referred to as intestinal flu. Infection can occur through contact with a sick person. Therefore, in close contact the large number of people, for example at school or kindergarten, is often observed epidemic.
The treatment of such diseases should be conducted under the supervision of a physician. Remember that self-medication can negatively affect your health.
There are following types of diseases: Amoebiasis – infection of amoebas. Primarily affects the colon. There is development of abscesses in various internal organs. Infection through water, food or interaction with the sick person.
- Toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma is caused by the microorganisms that live in the cells of the body, human or animal.
- Giardiasis. The causative agent is Giardia. They settle in the small intestine of man. The disease develops on the type of enteritis. When not treated protozoa are distributed throughout the body.
- Balantidia. Is caused by activity of the ciliate balantidium. Accompanied by the development of ulcerative colitis.
To detect the presence in the human body of microorganisms by analysis of urine, feces, or vomit. Immunity to such diseases is not produced.
Symptoms of the disease
Main signs and symptoms of acute intestinal infections are similar. First, the disease may be asymptomatic. But most of the symptoms manifested quite sharply. First appear:
- Pain in the abdomen, which are paroxysmal in nature. The duration of a single attack could reach four minutes.
- A reduced appetite.
- Diarrhea. This symptom you need to stop as soon as possible. Prolonged diarrhea often causes serious dehydration.
- Sleep problems.
- Rashes on the skin.
- Nausea, retching.
- Loud noises in the stomach.
- Fatigue, drowsiness.
- Fever acute intestinal infection it often enough.
Depending on the pathogen, which gave the start of the disease, and secrete a number of specific symptoms. Syndrome intestinal infection is manifested by one of the following problems:
- Kastrychitski syndrome. Accompanied by pain localized in the region of the stomach, persistent nausea and retching after every meal.
- Gastroenterologicheskii syndrome. Unpleasant sensations are concentrated in the navel, vomiting, stool acquires a greenish tint, they might find mucus or blood impurities.
- Interfacekey syndrome. The main symptom is frequent watery stools, which is not accompanied by nausea or vomiting. Most often this disease is observed in cholera.
- Enterocolitis syndrome. Is characterized by severe pain in the abdomen, uchenymi the urge to defecate. Such symptoms characteristic of dysentery or salmonellosis.
- Kriticheski syndrome. Pain localized in the lower abdomen. In Calais there are traces of mucus and blood. Can appear false urge to defecation.
Bacterial intestinal infection has symptoms of dehydration. This is a dangerous condition which in the absence of treatment leads to death.
Peculiarities of disease in childhood
Intestinal infections in children are fairly common. The disease is accompanied by striking symptoms. Infection most often occurs through poor quality drinking water, formula milk, dirty fruits and vegetables. In some cases the child becomes ill after contact with an infected person. Most often children suffer from the following diseases:
- Rotavirus infection.
- E. coli.
The first signs of intestinal infection: pain in the abdominal area, fever and retching. Stools are found traces of mucus and blood. Dehydration is manifested by thirst, reduced urine volume and dryness of mucous membranes. With a long stay in this condition there is a weakness, excessive sleepiness.
If the body temperature of the baby rose to the level of 39 degrees, you should immediately contact your doctor. In addition to taking medication, the treatment will include adherence to a special diet.
What complications can cause disease
If the therapy was started late or the degree of intoxication was significant, can develop complications. They include:
- Infectious-toxic shock. Manifested a short time after infection. His reason being a high concentration of toxic substances in the body.
- Dehydration. Occurs due to prolonged diarrhea and vomiting. If dehydration reaches a critical point, a person can fall into a coma, followed by death. Signs of a problem are: the long absence of urination, dry mucous membranes, rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, change in color of skin.
- Acute renal failure. Can develop under the influence of toxins or could be due to dehydration.
- Pneumonia. Common in children. Develops on the background of partial dehydration.
If infection of the intestine led to such complications that will require long complex treatment.
What not to do at suspicion on an intestinal infection
Often, people are suspecting the infection in the gut, trying to handle it by yourself. Such self-medication can not pass unnoticed and often leads to complications. Remember a few activities that are prohibited in this disease:
- To stop pain with analgesics. It can make accurate diagnosis and proper development of treatment programs.
- Use of fixing means without a prescription. Acute infectious disease of the toxins accumulate in the intestine. Diarrhea helps the body cleanse itself. The ingestion of such drugs in this time will provoke the increase in the concentration of toxins that exacerbate the disease.
- Be applied to the stomach a hot compress. Heat contributes to the inflammatory process.
- To use folk or homeopathic remedies. Such techniques are acceptable only as a Supplement to conservative treatment after consultation with your doctor.
Just the right timely treatment with advanced medical examination can guarantee a successful recovery. Procrastination can threaten not only your health, but also life.
In order to accurately determine the diagnosis and to prepare a treatment program, the following measures are necessary:
- History collection. The physician should interview the victim on the subject of the complaints. You know the events that preceded the appearance of symptoms. Then the specialist conducts an examination of the patient, assessment of his condition.
- To identify viral infection will help special rapid test. To conduct the test strip is dipped into the stool of the person. After 10 minutes take readings. If the result is negative, it is necessary to conduct tests on bacterial kill.
- Bacteriological examination can accurately determine the causative agent. It is carried out by seeding samples of feces and vomitus in a supportive environment. A few days later formed colonies of microorganisms.
- On the basis of the blood test is serology. It can be used to detect the presence of antibodies to the microorganisms.
These simple and affordable techniques can accurately identify the causative agent. If you show signs of complications, the doctor appoints additional instrumental examinations, e.g. colonoscopy, barium enema or sigmoidoscopy. They help determine the condition of the digestive system.
Basic principles of treatment
Often people wonder whether intestinal infection go myself. Specialist give an unambiguous answer is no. The disease requires complex treatment. Otherwise, the probability of developing serious complications. For each patient the individual table therapy. Principles of treatment the following:
- Compliance with the pastel of the regime and a specific diet. During an exacerbation is recommended to use liquid food: vegetable soups, broth from lean meats, porridge. Permitted-boiled fish, steam scrambled eggs, baked peeled apples, cookies without baking. It is strictly forbidden to drink milk, smoked and fried foods, canned foods, seasonings, onion, garlic, and alcoholic beverages. Milk is not recommended to drink over the next three months after recovery.
- The use of specialized medicines. It includes the following areas:
- The treatment is primarily aimed at the cessation of vital functions of pathogenic microorganisms. For this purpose, antibiotics and intestinal antiseptic. Most often prescribed antibiotics of fluoroquinolone group.
- It is also necessary to adopt means to restore the normal microflora of the intestine. These include probiotics: lineks, hilak Forte, Acipol and others.
- To restore the water-salt balance helps Registratsionnaya therapy. Together with sufficient fluid intake used intravenous infusion of certain solutions.
- To cleanse the body of toxins is possible by using sorbents: filtrum, enterosgel, smectite and others.
- To establish normal digestion helps reception enzyme preparations Mezim, CREON, Pancreatin.
In severe cases may require hospitalization of the victim in medical institution. If the disease is detected, dangerous to others, then the patient is isolated. To treat the disease should be under the supervision of specialists. The correct treatment plan is developed after reliable identification of the pathogen.
In order to reduce the likelihood of infection to a minimum, you must adhere to the following guidelines:
- Always observe good personal hygiene. Try as often as possible to wash their hands. If this is not possible, use antiseptic. It can be antibacterial wipes or a special gel for the hands.
- Be used only bottled or boiled water. Never drink from unknown sources and especially water.
- Thoroughly wash all fruits and vegetables before use under running water. If you plan to feed the children, wash the fruit you need in boiled water. Not be amiss and scald them with boiling water.
- Eat only well cooked meals. This is especially true of meat and fish.
- Perishable products must be stored in the refrigerator.
- Not accumulate in the house garbage. It can serve as a favorable environment for bacteria. Try as often as possible to carry out damp cleaning in the house. Pay special attention to the sanitary condition of the bathroom and toilet. High humidity also promotes the growth of bacteria.
Compliance with these simple rules will help you to forget about the problem, how to get rid of intestinal infection. Always be attentive to their health and the products that you use.
Remember that when the first symptoms of intoxication should immediately consult a doctor. Self-medication in this case is unacceptable.