Intoxication: symptoms, signs, treatment

How does intoxication

Intoxication – a pathological condition in which there is poisoning of the body toxins, toxins, medications or pathogenic microorganisms. In this article, we reviewed what the intoxication of the organism, it can provoke and what are the symptoms to manifest.

What is intoxication, what are the reasons for its development

Intoxication is a broad term that describes a pathological process in which there is poisoning and attacking the body with some dangerous substances. It can be acute or chronic.

The main causes of intoxication include the following:

  • Food poisoning, when in the body gets the toxins that have formed in spoiled food. Threat can be any expired products or those that were stored at the wrong temperature. Especially dangerous are dairy, meat, fish and mushroom products. Poor quality food can cause intestinal infections, e.g. salmonellosis, dysentery. These infectious diseases lead to severe General intoxication, are dangerous to humans.
  • Overdose of drugs can occur when you abuse any medication. Drug intoxication can cause rapid death. Its manifestations depend on the type of drug that the patient took.
  • The poisoning by toxic gases (e.g., chadny stinking household) occurs when they are inhaled. Toxic substances are absorbed via the alveoli into the blood and affect the entire body.
  • Accidental or ingestion of various chemicals, poisons, detergents, acids or alkalis. This poisoning can occur in a child who decided to try an unknown substance to the taste. Also the toxicity of chemicals found in people who decided to commit suicide.
  • Infectious processes in the body can lead to severe intoxication. Bacteria and viruses produce toxins that poison the body and lead to an intense inflammatory response. Some viruses kill the human immune system and make it more susceptible to severe intoxications. For example, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, belonging to the group of retroviruses) makes people completely vulnerable to various fungi, bacteria and viruses.
  • Alcohol and its surrogates (methyl alcohol, ethylene glycol). Alcohol poisoning is a severe condition of intoxication. The decomposition products which are formed due to neutralization of alcohol, poisoning liver, pancreas, brain tissue. If poisoning alcohol substitutes death. Only timely qualified medical assistance could save the injured person.

Chronic intoxication can last for years. Most often it is of a professional nature and develops in the person who is in contact with the chemicals are on duty. The risk group includes doctors, employees of editorial offices, factories, industries, automobile filling stations.

Please note that smokers suffer from chronic nicotine intoxication. Under the influence of cigarette smoke in their body and gradually increasing irreversible changes in the vessels, lungs, nervous tissue, the formation of malignant tumors.

The main clinical manifestations of acute intoxication

Symptoms of intoxication depend on its cause. In acute lesions the body with toxins and symptoms develop quickly for the first few hours after contact with toxic substances. Some toxic substances can act immediately. For example, poisoning with methyl clinically can manifest in a day. Below we have reviewed the signs and symptoms for different types of intoxication.

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Food poisoning

The first signs of food poisoning develop within the first 6 hours after eating it. Typical symptoms include:

  • abdominal pain localized in the region of the stomach or intestines. When excessive flatulence develops intestinal colic;
  • nausea and subsequent vomiting that bring temporary relief;
  • diarrhea. When salmonellosis stool greenish and frothy, and in dysentery – watery. In Calais you can see mucus, streaks of blood;
  • tachycardia – rapid heartbeat;
  • the increase in body temperature is characteristic of intestinal infections. It can grow up to 39 degrees;
  • headache, dizziness and General weakness are typical signs of intoxication syndrome.

An overdose of drugs

Signs of intoxication with drugs depend on the drug that took the victim. Every drug acts on the body differently. In the table below we have gathered the symptoms of drug intoxication if poisoning with some drugs.

Name of drug/group of drugs The main symptoms of overdose
Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin cardiomagnyl)
  • hypothermia – lowering body temperature;
  • pain in the stomach;
  • vomiting;
  • may develop stomach bleeding, in which the vomiting and diarrhoea of a dark color;
  • shortness of breath, when the respiratory rate greater than 20 beats/min;
  • disturbance of consciousness and heart.
Cardiac glycosides (e.g., korglikon)
  • bradycardia – slow heartbeat;
  • sharp cramps and pains throughout the abdomen;
  • nausea and repeated vomiting;
  • diarrhea;
  • slow breathing;
  • drowsiness;

When receiving large doses of the drug may develop cardiac arrest, to come clinical death.

Hypnotics, sedatives (e.g., phenobarbital, Corvalolum, barboval, phenazepam, denormal)
  • increased sleepiness, lethargy;
  • slow breathing, a heartbeat;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • seizures (as in epilepsy);
  • decreased blood pressure (hypotension);
  • the absence of tendon reflexes and reaction of pupils to light;
  • impaired consciousness, the patient falls asleep first, then gradually loaded in a deep coma.

Death can occur due to respiratory failure and cardiac contractility.

Paracetamol (efferalgan, Panadol) First, intoxication is manifested as food poisoning. The patient develops vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain. It is also possible to decrease body temperature to 35 degrees. After 10-12 hours, there are signs of liver damage:

  • pain in the right upper quadrant;
  • yellowness of the skin, conjunctiva and visible mucous membranes;
  • violation of the chair.

In the case of acute intoxication may disrupt consciousness, heart, breathing.

Nitroglycerin
  • severe headache;
  • lowering blood pressure;
  • dizziness;
  • nausea and vomiting, not bringing relief;
  • pale skin, bruising nasolabial triangle, limbs;
  • cold hands and feet;
  • loss of consciousness, coma.
No-Spa (drotaverine)
  • the disruption of the heart, arrhythmia;
  • a sharp drop in blood pressure;
  • the darkening of the eyes, dizziness;
  • headache;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • shortness of breath of mixed character;
  • disturbance of consciousness.
Antibiotics Overdosing with antibiotics is manifested by symptoms similar to food poisoning. Their background may develop acute renal and hepatic failure, allergic reaction.

Please note that the poison can be any drug. Even vitamins are dangerous in case of their use in large numbers. When the deteriorating condition after taking a drug in large quantities, should be the first thing to suspect drug intoxication.

Signs of intoxication gases

When the gas poisoning of the body the symptoms develop quickly, within the first 10-15 minutes. The speed of their growth depends on the concentration of toxic gas in the air.

In case of poisoning by carbon monoxide or cooking gas may develop the following symptoms:

  • feeling pains in the eyes, lacrimation;
  • sore throat, dry cough;
  • violation of breathing, it becomes rapid, more superficial, develops shortness of breath;
  • feeling short of breath;
  • pallor of the skin;
  • tachycardia;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • pain in the chest;
  • headache, dizziness;
  • convulsive disorder;
  • loss of consciousness, falling into a coma.

Poisoning with acids and alkalis

For poisoning with acids or alkalis characterized by immediate onset of symptoms. These chemicals cause deep burns of the mucous membrane of the mouth, esophagus and stomach. Due to deep lesions of the walls of these organs may develop gastrointestinal bleeding.

First, the intoxicated person has severe pain along the esophagus and in the stomach. Then develop standard signs of intoxication: headache, nausea, diarrhea.

If the poisoning provoked gastrointestinal bleeding, the patient vomit and diarrhea dark color, sharply pale skin, there is tachycardia, hypotension, shortness of breath.

Alcohol intoxication

Alcohol poisoning develops when the concentration of alcohol in the blood above 2 g/l or random use of surrogates alcohol. Intoxication with alcohol is deadly to humans. A lethal dose of alcohol individual. The worse the patient works the liver and kidneys, the greater the harm alcohol causes to the body.

Symptoms of alcohol intoxication develop within the first 4-6 hours after drinking alcohol. First developed signs of food poisoning then the symptoms appear defeat the Central nervous system and internal organs. The patient may experience hallucinations, seizures.

Toxic liver jaundice increases, there is pain in the right hypochondrium.

Please note that in case of poisoning with methyl alcohol, decreased visual acuity, floaters and sparks before the eyes. If untreated, there is a total lesion of the optic nerve, it is blind.

Possible complications of intoxication

In severe poisoning by toxins can develop serious disorders in the whole body, striking vital organs and systems. Listed below are the complications that accompany severe intoxication:

  • Dehydration, electrolyte and acid-base balance can occur due to repeated vomiting and diarrhea. Patients get heart rhythm disturbance, shortness of breath, decreased elasticity of the skin, sink your eyeballs.
  • Infectious-toxic shock (ITSH), evolving with severe lesions of the body with toxins and/or infections. Its when the temperature rises, pressure drops, tachycardia develops, can disrupt the consciousness. Primarily affects the adrenal glands.
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding can complicate alcohol intoxication, poisoning by medicaments, alkalis and acids. The dark manifests itself with vomiting and diarrhea, abdominal pain, impaired consciousness, pallor, hypotonia, tachycardia.
  • Acute pancreatitis – inflammation of the pancreas due to its destruction by toxins. To treat this pathology is possible only by surgery, since it develops the necrotic dying parts of the pancreas. Patients get acute girdle pain in the abdomen, the skin around the navel is covered with hemorrhagic spots, develops uncontrollable vomiting, body temperature rises to 39-40 degrees.
  • Acute renal failure occurs when kidney disease toxins, develops at poisonings with alcohol substitutes, chemicals, certain medicines. The patient can occur anuria – the decrease in amount of urine to 50 ml/day. Also developed swelling all over the body, of a person sick, it raises blood pressure, yellow skin.
  • Acute liver failure manifested by jaundice, pain in the right hypochondrium. Perhaps falling into a coma, hepatic encephalopathy.

What to do in case of acute intoxication

With the development of acute intoxication of any etiology should immediately call the ambulance. While waiting for the arrival of doctors should begin to give the patient first aid. Below are briefly listed the main components:

  1. Terminate exposure to the toxic substance. If the patient is in a smoke-filled room, he should be taken out into the fresh air. If poisoning should carry out gastric lavage, in order to bring out toxins from it (this procedure is not performed on a bloody or dark vomit, poisoning alkalis and acids, disturbed the mind of the victim). To cleanse the stomach in one gulp need to drink a liter of water and snatch it up.
  2. In food, alcohol, or drug poisoning should carry out a cleansing enema on the basis of plain water.
  3. Give the patient sorbents (if there are no signs of internal bleeding). Can use any products from this group of drugs (for example, enterosgel, activated carbon, POLYSORB). Before taking drugs carefully read the instructions.
  4. Drink of the poisoned person with water (if conscious and no dark vomit). When the gas poisoning can give it a sweet tea or milk.
  5. With the development of signs of gastrointestinal bleeding do not give the patient anything to drink or take. Put him on your stomach with a bag of ice. The cold will cause vasospasm and reduce blood loss.

Further treatment is carried out by doctors. Physicians SPM will provide first aid to the victim and take him to the nearest hospital for further treatment and examination. The duration of stay in hospital depends on the patient’s condition and positive dynamics in response to therapy.

In some cases, the patient entered a pharmaceutical substance, which it poisoned. For example, in the use of methyl alcohol helps ethyl. In case of poisoning with poisons, drugs, chemicals may need hemodialysis – cleansing the blood by using artificial kidney. In acute pancreatitis, or internal bleeding, surgical intervention.

Intoxication can be caused by many reasons and factors. Clinical manifestations depend on the substance or microorganism that triggered its development. Treatment of intoxication syndrome must be performed by qualified doctors in a hospital. Self-medication can lead to disability or death.