Lethal dose for man: list of substances
What doses of the substances are lethal to humans
People every day to eat the different foods, spices and drinks. In addition, many of us undergo periodic treatment with medicines and taking vitamins. The excess of any food can lead to severe poisoning, and in some cases death. Even familiar things can have a negative impact on the body by excessive alcohol intake. Need to know the lethal dose for a person of a substance to protect himself and his family.
How does the abuse of alcohol and nicotine
Alcoholic beverages cannot be called a vital product, which is vital in the diet, but some people consume it in that capacity, sometimes quite oblivious to any extent. The lethal dosage is taken only once, is the equivalent of pure alcohol in 4-12 grams per kilogram of tissue. For a young man of normal stature lethal dosage will be 5-6 ppm of ethanol detected in the venous blood. This can easily come to use one set more than three standard bottles of vodka. The human body to such a large intake of toxic substances can respond adequately, they will start uncontrollable vomiting that will contribute to partial purification.
From ethanol there are benefits. Despite the strong toxicity, it is an excellent antidote in case of intoxication of other alcohols – methanol and ethylene glycol.
Nicotine is not only in tobacco products. It is contained in sufficient quantities in potatoes, eggplant, tomatoes and big bell peppers. The substance that is in vegetables, harming the person brings, as there is negligible dose.
This substance is very toxic and poses a mortal danger not only to humans and warm-blooded creatures, but even for many insects. Individual sensitivity to nicotine all warm-blooded different. In rats the lethal outcome occurs when the intake of 50 mg per kilogram of body weight, in mice and 5.9 mg per kilogram, and people can die if the concentration is 0.5-1 mg per kilogram of mass. To understand how this tiny dose, it is possible to make a comparison with a known poison, cyanide. It for fatal poisoning, it is sufficient only 1.7 mg per kilogram of mass.
When Smoking cigarettes the bulk of the nicotine is burned and decomposed to less toxic substances. Lovers to smoke and kill yourself slowly. But to die fast enough to smoke from more than a hundred cigarettes.
People have to eat over 20 kg of laughing grass or smoke about 700 kg for 15 minutes to die. It can be called an explanation for the fact that there have been no recorded deaths from overdose of marijuana.
In 100 grams of sausage or any other processed meat products contained up to 2 grams of salt. It is known that a lethal dose for a human of this substance fluctuate depending on the body mass. So, people small weight class is enough at a time to eat about 3 pounds of sausage products to get unpleasant consequences from excess of salt. This manifests itself such unpleasant conditions:
- The increase in pressure due to the fact that the intracellular fluid moves into the blood vessels.
- Tissue in the body very dehydrated and slowly die.
- Irreversible changes in the cells of the brain, which leads to the death of this body.
In addition to the huge amount of salt in the sausage contains excess preservatives, flavors and flavor enhancers. All these substances negatively influence on the human body.
All chocolate contains lots of sugar, which, when excessive consumption is very dangerous for human health. You need to remember that in one kilogram of chocolate contains a lethal dosage of sugar – 700 grams.
If a person receives an overload of sugar, in the body there are such pathological processes:
- releases insulin in excess amounts;
- insulin that the pancreas produces is not enough and sugar is out with urine;
- from the body in parallel with the sugar leaves a lot of fluids, so dehydration comes quickly.
Excessive consumption of chocolate for a long time leads to severe allergic reactions and diabetes.
It turns out that cherry, too, is a threat to human health. Or rather, not the flesh, and the contents of cherry pits. It contains a dangerous poison cyanide. If a person accidentally swallowed a few bones, then there is no threat. And if it was eaten the contents of cherry seeds, it will lead to death. A lethal dose is only 2 grams of this substance. That’s why doctors do not recommend eating the contents of the seed.
Without rock salt can not live no warm-blooded creature. However, the daily requirement is very small and is not more than 2-4 grams. If people are constantly undernourished salt, then it starts the development of such diseases:
- the destruction of bone mass;
- muscle atrophy;
- malfunctions of the functions of the heart and digestive system;
- developing depression, which can progress to a more serious mental illness.
If the salt is completely absent in the diet, it leads to death in just 10 days.
The excess of salt as terrible as a drawback. No wonder the people there is a saying that salt is white death. For people a dangerous dose is considered to be 250 grams of kitchen salt. And this death will be quite painful as dying from a massive swelling of important organs and systems.
Caffeine is in coffee, tea and some plants. In small doses it is good invigorates and stimulates activity, but this condition after some time varies with fatigue, weakness and depression. A lethal dose of caffeine for a person is about 10 grams of a pure substance, but only under condition of availability in the bloodstream. To die after coffee, you need not just drink more than 5 liters of good, strong espresso, but also to wait until it is completely learned.
For people with a weakened immune system lethal dose of caffeine is much less, so it is not necessary to abuse this drink.
Without water life on earth is clearly aware of both adults and children. But it can be a threat. In the water you can not only drown through negligence – it is actually poisonous. Poisoning is a completely pure, drinkable water, if drank too much.
If the human body receives too much water, changes of water-salt balance, upset the work of all major organs and systems, which ultimately leads to death.
Death may occur if the person throughout the day drink more than 7 liters of water. In this volume consider not only water and drinks, but entrees.
Water poisoning is diagnosed in medical practice rare. In most cases it happens after strenuous physical exercise in the sun. In addition, such States are unable to meet the travelers, who have long suffered from thirst, and then uncontrollably drank water.
This spice can also lead to death when consumed in food volume over 10 grams. Affects liver cells, resulting General malaise and discoloration of the skin.
The mechanical effect
The sun’s rays
A lethal dose of chemicals to humans Supplement sunlight. If earlier it was believed that the longer a person walks in the sun, so it is healthier, it is now scientifically proved that this is absolutely not true. Excessive person under the sun will not only lead to visible changes in the skin, but also to other unpleasant consequences:
- The rapid aging of the skin and the whole organism.
- The dysfunction of genital organs.
- Oncological diseases.
Interestingly, the lack of sunlight leads to exactly such pathologies.
Sunstroke is a very dangerous condition that in a third of cases leads to death. If walking in a Sunny location, the person feels unwell, you need to go in a shaded area.
Electricity is very dangerous – it is known to all. Each person in a certain period on personal experience convinced, as a painful shock. But, it turns out, make the electric shock not only when using electrical appliances. Quite often this phenomenon is observed in the cold season, when the air in the house dry and all the clothes are excessively electrified. Sparks literally spilling with people at any movement. When the body passes a current of 1mA, it is already causing you pain.
DC current more than 60 mA AC, or a force of about 300 mA can cause cardiac arrest. But this same current is used in medicine to start stopped heart recently.
On the list of factors for the people there and the mosquitoes. A female mosquito can drink from the human body to 5 ml of blood. At the same time, fatal blood loss for people considered to be 2.5 liters. If you follow the logic, then a person of average build can zakusat to death half a million flock of these insects. In this case, death will come from the toxic saliva of the insect that stands out in the process of the bite. Thanks to this substance at the site of the bite feels burning and severe inflammation.
All important vitamins, without exception, are poisonous in excessive alcohol intake. Often a surplus of a particular vitamin and its deficiency lead to similar symptoms. Thus, vitamin a deficiency and excess of the same will lead to dryness of the skin and severe hair loss. The volume of different vitamins that are necessary for human proper functioning of all organs and systems, negligibly small. And any excess dosage will lead to acute or chronic intoxication.
The maximum permissible dose of vitamins for adults and children are always indicated on the original packaging, they must consistently comply with. To get a strong poison, which in some cases leads to death, enough to drink a couple of packages of pharmaceutical drugs.
Starting to take vitamin complexes, it is necessary to adjust the diet. Foods also supply vitamins in the body, which can cause oversupply.
Safe, at first glance, the drug paracetamol, which is prescribed to patients of all age groups also leads to serious consequences for immoderate consumption. Lethal dosage for humans was the amount of 15 grams. There is a strong defeat of the liver cells, which leads to permanent liver failure and ultimately could provoke a lethal outcome.
It would seem that even conventional foods and substances can lead to irreversible consequences and even death. This is not surprising – all you need to know measure after all any product from useful into harmful if they are heavily abused.