Manganese poisoning: symptoms of intoxication with potassium permanganate

Manganese intoxication: characteristics of disease and treatment

Manganese is one of the key elements involved in the process of functioning and development of organs and systems, however, a large intake of its effects becomes neurotoxic in nature. Manganese poisoning is most often found in workers of hazardous industries. It occurs slowly enough, but if delayed detection leads to the damage irreversible.

Properties and applications of manganese

Pure manganese does not exist in nature. It is found in the form of compounds with various metals. This element easily reacts with oxygen, insoluble in water and soluble in acids.

The greatest application of manganese has received in the industry. With it, steel is made with high strength, which is further used in the manufacture of armor and rails. Not less demanded of manganese in process of welding, in the manufacture of various electrical components.

Ways of poisoning manganese

Manganese is characterized by a high toxicity, so toxicity of this element is common propolene workers in the mining, processing plants, steelmaking plants, enterprises for the production of components for electric appliances.

In addition to manganese poisoning as a result of penetration of the element through the respiratory system, it is possible to enter this substance in the human body through the digestive system, in rare cases through the skin.

Manganese tends to accumulate in the human body. The main places of its accumulation – the brain, liver and lungs, bones. Prolonged exposure to this element in humans, found fibrous changes and pneumonia, asthma, damage to the nervous system irreversible.

Poisoning through the respiratory system

Symptoms of poisoning by manganese, and methods for treatment of the problem, differenciate depending on how the item came to the human body. Penetration of manganese through the upper respiratory tract is characterized by a chronic course of the process of intoxication, difficulty of detection in the initial stages and the impossibility of complete recovery.

Symptoms of poisoning

Most cases of manganese poisoning occurs as a result of its chronic effects in terms of production or in the use of narcotic substances of artisanal production.

Symptoms manifestations of intoxication in this case is not immediate and depends on the stage of the process. There are three stages of poisoning:

  1. The stage of functional disorders. At this stage, the intoxication is diagnosed difficult, as characterized by minor ailments, which rarely pay attention. Poisoning is manifested by the following symptoms:
  • loss of appetite;
  • memory impairment;
  • sweating;
  • decreased muscle tone of the upper limbs.
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On clinical examination at this stage reveals increase in the volume of the thyroid gland, signs of gastritis. Do women have menstrual disorders, men – reduced potency. For poisoned person is characterized by changes in mental activity, reflected in the narrowing of range of interests, decline, shallowness of thinking, high distractibility. When carrying out the production associated with the use of manganese, a regular psychological research workers, possible early detection of signs of intoxication. The cessation of contact with the chemical element at this stage will prevent further changes in the Central nervous system of the person, but does not guarantee full recovery of health.

  1. Stage progression. With continued intake of manganese irreversible disturbances in the functioning of the nervous system. Symptoms of toxic encephalopathy:
  • loud and slow speech;
  • rare blinking and the weakening of facial expressions;
  • increase muscle tone;
  • the transformation of the gait with impaired movements of the upper limbs;
  • reduced abdominal reflexes.
  1. Phase of manganese parkinsonism. At this stage show signs of brain damage. Patients become lethargic, they have slurred speech, sudden slowing of movements, violation letters. Gait changed, often observed walking on their toes. There is a decrease of intelligence, the weakening of critical thinking, periods of apathy can change to emotional explosions, accompanied by shouting, crying or laughing. In addition to violations on the part of the nervous system, the possible pathological changes in the functioning of the internal organs: gastritis, reduction of antitoxic function of the liver, a metabolic process.

Diagnosis

To distinguish manganese encephalopathy from other diseases with similar symptoms, the following diagnostic methods:

  • magnetic resonance imaging. In the pictures you can clearly see the places where chemical element and its volume;
  • laboratory examination of blood. This analysis allows to identify comorbidities, to adjust therapies based on the detected abnormalities;
  • electroencephalography. Using this method is determined by the condition and functioning of the brain before treatment and during the implementation of certain therapeutic measures.

Treatment

Methods of first aid and surgical treatment depends on what stage has been identified manganese intoxication. Thus, upon detection of symptoms of poisoning at the stage of functional disorders is rather the cessation of human contact with the chemical element. For recovery doctor most frequently prescribed intravenous vitamin B1, glucose, tamazin-calcium. In some cases, the medications used to improve sleep, reduce spasms and headaches. The patient was recommended to increase the amount of consumption of milk products. During the year the patient it is advisable to take a few courses antidote therapy.

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Therapy of poisoning by manganese at the stage of encephalopathy consists of the stages listed below:

  • The excretion of toxins. To do this, various techniques can be used: washing stomach and intestines, forced diuresis, blood purification.
  • Appointment of symptomatic treatment. Used drugs to reduce the Parkinsonian symptoms. In each case they are tailored to suit the individual and available signs of the disease.
  • Administration of drugs that stimulate the recovery process. Patient is prescribed medications to improve blood circulation and metabolic processes in the brain, the normalization of the stomach and liver, restore metabolic processes in the body.
  • Passage antioxidant therapy. For six months the patient must take drugs that neutralize the effects of toxins on the body.
  • Rehabilitation physiotherapy.

The consequences

Upon detection of intoxication with manganese in the second or third stage of the disease to completely eliminate the damage of chemical element, it is impossible. At these stages they become irreversible. Therefore, the possible effects of manganese encephalopathy of the brain:

  • mental decline;
  • psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, hallucinations;
  • epileptic seizures;
  • a coma;
  • fatal.

Poisoning through the digestive system

In addition to intoxication by inhaling particles of manganese, situations of poisoning by potassium permanganate as a result of its local or internal appointment. In contact with undissolved crystals of potassium permanganate or Selenomethionine solution on the skin or mucous membranes produces chemical burns. In human blood increases the level of potassium and manganese.

Intoxicated with manganese through the digestive system in humans the following symptoms:

  • increased salivation;
  • pain in the stomach;
  • nausea and vomiting with specks of blood;
  • diarrhea;
  • a state of nervous excitement;
  • the occurrence of seizures.

The area of the mouth and lips may be covered by spot burns upon exposure to crystals of manganese. The mucous membranes of the mouth and throat become brownish-purple shade, they formed ulcers and erosions, visible swelling.

The ingestion of concentrated potassium permanganate solution can cause swelling of the larynx, a narrowing of the glottis and suffocation. Death of adults occurs by ingestion of 0.3-0.5 g of manganese per kilogram of body weight, in children ingestion of 3 g of substance.

First aid for intoxication

Emergency care of poisoned person is to perform the following procedures:

  1. To wash out the stomach by drinking large amounts of warm water and induce vomiting until the allocated liquid will become transparent. For greater efficiency you can prepare the following solution: in a container with two liters of water add 100 ml of hydrogen peroxide and 200 ml of 3% acetic acid.
  2. Water of the patient of 0.5% ascorbic acid solution.
  3. To clean the mouth with cotton swabs soaked in 1% strength ascorbic acid solution.
  4. To ensure the flow of air into the room.
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Other measures to detoxify the body of manganese should be conducted by qualified medical personnel.

Treatment

The complex of therapeutic measures for human detoxification with manganese poisoning depends on the degree of organ damage and may consist of the following activities:

  • the introduction of calcium disodium salt of EDTA;
  • blood infusion upon detection of heart failure;
  • the appointment of agents to maintain blood pressure and cardiac activity;
  • the introduction of painkillers;
  • the of calcium supplementation for the prevention of bleeding;
  • anticonvulsant medicines if necessary;
  • drugs for maintenance of kidney and liver;
  • preventive and curative measures to eliminate edema of the larynx.

Prevention

When using manganese in the production process, it is important to observe safety precautions in exposure: to work in a well ventilated area, wear a respirator, take a shower after work, to undergo scheduled medical examinations. Workers of industrial enterprises should be the correct diet because a vitamin deficiency often leads to anemia, which increases susceptibility to manganese.

If suspected poisoning should be screened and go to work area with no toxic substances. Upon detection of manganese intoxication contact with this element is forbidden. When establishing the second and third forms of poisoning people eligible for the issue of disability.

A solution of potassium permanganate used in the home for washing the stomach in case of poisoning, should be properly cooked to avoid getting burn mucous membranes. To make it, a few crystals of manganese dissolved in a liter of warm water. The resulting liquid should have a light pink hue.

In order to avoid falling into the esophagus undissolved crystals of manganese is recommended to prepare a saturated solution, then add water to obtain desired concentration.

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