Mushroom poisoning: symptoms, signs, treatment
What to do in cases of poisoning by mushrooms
Mushroom poisoning are very dangerous and can lead to death. Poison can even edible varieties. This article describes the main signs and symptoms of mushroom poisoning, causes, risk, methods of providing emergency first aid poisoned person.
The main causes of poisoning
The peak of the poisoning occurred in the summer-autumn period. At this time Matures the majority of mushroom varieties. Most often, poisoning caused by eating poisonous mushrooms that people accidentally collected, or bought. But the danger to human health present and edible varieties of mushrooms.
The following are the main causes of mushroom poisoning:
- Eating poisonous varieties. The greatest danger to humans are the following:
- red mushroom;
- Amanita pantherina;
- talkie Tina whitish;
- about mushrooms;
- Picking mushrooms in the ecologically and radiation-contaminated areas, along highways. Mushrooms are in their structure very similar to a sponge. They absorb all toxic and harmful substances from the soil and air.
- Insufficient and improper heat treatment of edible varieties of mushrooms. In this case, the poisoning can cause morels, mushrooms and volnushki.
- The use of mushrooms along with alcohol alcohol. Alcohol increases the negative influence of fungal components on the body. Some mushrooms have toxins that dissolve in the human organism only under the influence of alcohol.
- Canned mushroom, infected with botulism. Failure to comply with the rules for conservation and heat treatment, there is a risk of Contracting botulism by eating canned mushroom products.
Please note that mushrooms grow best in polluted areas and along roads. Know it all professional mushroom pickers, and gather in these places mushrooms for sale.
Clinical manifestations of poisoning with poisonous mushrooms
It is important to know how to recognize a poisoning with mushrooms. The first symptoms can appear after 1-2 hours after eating. Their development depends on the type and amount of food eaten. Symptoms of poisoning with different varieties of mushrooms are very different from each other.
Please note, that when mushroom poisoning the symptoms and signs of intoxication may develop at lightning speed. Death can occur in 10-20 minutes after eating.
The main symptoms of poisoning with poisonous mushrooms is presented in the table:
|Species name of the fungus||The main symptoms|
|Govorushko and red toadstools||The first symptoms appear after 20-30 minutes.
Children and pregnant women are more susceptible to toxins contained in mushrooms. They have symptoms of poisoning may occur faster.
The main symptoms of poisoning with edible mushrooms
Food poisoning by mushrooms collected in contaminated areas, is evident within 1 day. Its main symptoms include:
- The appearance of pain in the stomach.
- Nausea with vomiting.
- Increase in flatulence and gas formation in the intestine.
- Violation of the chair, diarrhea.
- The increase in body temperature to subfebrile (37-37,5).
- General weakness.
In case of poisoning with mushroom canned food, and the development of botulism develop the following symptoms:
- Pain in the abdomen.
- Fever, fever up to 39-40 degrees.
- Disturbances. The patient begins to go blind, he can’t move eyeballs.
- Ptosis is a lowering of the eyelids, due to lesions of the facial nerve.
- Sensation of dryness in the mouth.
- Progressive disorder of swallowing.
- Shortness of breath, and rapid breathing. The patient breathes shallowly and superficially.
- General weakness muscle muscles.
What are the dangers of mushroom poisoning
After effects of mushroom poisoning can be very serious and lead to disability and severe disorders in the internal organs and death.
The main possible complications of mushroom poisoning include:
- Acute renal failure in which the kidneys cease to function normally. It develops due to lesions of the tubules of the nephron toxins and poisons.
- Liver failure is caused by toxins of fungi, which enter the bloodstream to the liver. This organ is involved in detoxification of blood, and when ingested it poisons the first to suffer.
- The Central nervous system and oppression of consciousness. Due to the influence of mushroom poisons, the patient gradually begins to boot. First, he develops a stupor, which ends up in a coma. Also, there may be convulsions throughout the body, visual and auditory hallucinations.
- Gastrointestinal bleeding develops when the lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum. It is manifested by vomiting and diarrhea of dark color, a drop in blood pressure.
- Cardiac arrest. Some varieties of poisonous mushrooms inhibit the activity of the heart.
- Stop breathing, which is caused by a strong spasm of the bronchi and bronchioles.
- Fatal. Deadly mushroom poisoning develops when consuming poisonous varieties. The amount eaten is not always the matter. For example, a person to death is enough of a quarter of the cap is white toadstool.
First aid for mushroom poisoning
From the correctly rendered first aid, depends on the prognosis for life, the man who poisoned mushrooms. As already stated above, the symptoms may develop instantly. As soon as the first signs of mushroom poisoning, call the ambulance. The dispatcher exactly what is your address, describe the incident.
Please note that to suspect poisoning poisonous mushrooms should everyone who ate mushroom dishes on the last days, and koto began any changes in the condition of the body. Even the feeling of malaise may be the first symptom of severe intoxication.
While doctors you go to, begin to help yourself poisoned. Listed below you can find basic steps that you can help the patient:
- Loosen patient clothing that may interfere with the free breathing (tie, shirt), open the Windows for ventilation.
- Give the man gulp drink 1 liter of plain water, and ask him to pull out. This procedure is best repeated several times. Using a body cleansing you will be able to withdraw from the stomach the remnants of the poisonous mushrooms, poisons and toxins.
- Make the patient an enema. It will fit a regular water at room temperature. Add some medication, or grass is prohibited. Enema should be done.
- Give the man the sorbents, taking into account the necessary dosage. For example, when using activated carbon, is given 1 tablet per 10 kg of weight. That is, if a person weighs 70 kg, he will need 7 pills.
- Non-carbonated drink poisoned water canteen.
No need to throw away the mushroom dishes which people were poisoned, they may be required for the decision of a correct diagnosis and selection of treatment.
First aid has a team of SMP. They assess the condition of the patient, collect anamnesis of poisoning. You will need details to tell the doctors about what happened, to describe the symptoms of the person. It is also important to describe the assistance that you provided to the patient. First, doctors assess the vital signs of the patient. If it came to the stop of breathing and cardiac work, doctors immediately begin to do CPR.
If the patient is alive and conscious, first aid consists of:
- Establishing an intravenous catheter and connection of droppers with solutions. Can be used with the following medications: Trisol, Disol,Reosorbilakt, saline, Reopoliglyukin, Glucose.
- Connect patient to oxygen, which is fed through the mask.
- Gastric lavage through the probe.
- Administration of drugs to relieve spasm of the bronchial tubes, raising the arterial blood pressure.
After stabilization of the patient’s condition, a team of SMP hospitalitynet it to the nearest branch of intensive therapy, resuscitation with toxicology.
Treatment in a hospital
The duration of patient’s stay in hospital depends on the extent of damage to his internal organs and speed their recovery.
Treatment for mushroom poisoning is very difficult, as doctors have to cope with abnormalities of many systems. It consists of:
- Hemodialysis. People connected to the artificial kidney through which passes and is purified of the poison the whole blood. The duration of this treatment is 2-3 days. With the development of acute renal failure is much longer.
- Massive intravenous fluids to combat dehydration.
- Diet. In the first few days there is a limited amount of food (dried bread, liquid rice porridge, app cookies).
- Enzyme preparations (Mezim, CREON, Pancreatin) to help restore the pancreas.
With the development of gastrointestinal bleeding, the treatment is carried out surgically. The doctor enters the stomach with the gastroscope, and puts the clip on the bleeding vessel.
Treatment of botulism is held in the isolation ward. Patients entered protivobotulinicheskoy serum.
Prevention of poisoning
It is much easier to avoid mushroom poisoning than to spend his treatment. Below are tips that will help you in choosing and cooking mushrooms:
- Buy mushrooms only in safe places, in supermarkets. Buying this product directly from the mushroom threat.
- For self-collect mushrooms, pick only those fruits, which is 100% sure. A large number of poisonous mushrooms resemble edible, so if you are not familiar with them, take along an experienced mushroom picker.
- Not collecting mushrooms along the highways, near industrial facilities.
- Conduct proper heat treatment of fungi, and in any case don’t eat them raw.
- Don’t combine the use of mushrooms with the intake of alcoholic beverages.
- Don’t give mushrooms to children. This product is contraindicated under 12 years.
- Damaged or rotten mushroom fruit throw, they can accumulate pathogenic bacteria.
- With caution eat mushroom dishes.
Mushroom poisoning is one of the most dangerous toxic lesions of the human body. Symptoms can appear within 20 minutes after eating. If you suspect the development of human mushroom poisoning, you should immediately call the ambulance. Independently at home you do not deal. The treatment is carried out in intensive therapy in toxicology. You should not throw away the mushroom dishes which poisoned people. With their help in the laboratory, it is possible to identify the poison that caused the failure of the body. About collecting and cooking mushrooms seriously, after all, to prevent poisoning is easier than curing.