Overdose of folic acid during pregnancy: symptoms, consequences
The causes and danger of overdose of folic acid
Folic acid is a water soluble vitamin group B. It ensures the growth of new cells and the immune and circulatory systems. Lack of vitamin leads to anemia, and in the early stages of pregnancy for developmental defects of the nervous system in the fetus. Overdose of folic acid also has negative consequences for the human body.
The role of folic acid
As the acid directly affects the formation, differentiation and normal cell growth, it is essential to the body in a period of rapid development during pregnancy and the first years of baby’s life. Without the participation of the vitamin does not restore DNA at its lack increases the risk of cancer. Deficiency acid appears negatively on the process of hematopoiesis in the bone marrow. Acid improves sperm quality, so it is prescribed for both partners when planning a pregnancy.
Daily dose of vitamin for pregnant women is 400 micrograms. In the period of breastfeeding the dosage is increased up to 460-500 mg. Infants first year of life should be consumed daily 50 mcg of acid. The maximum permissible dose for an adult is 1000 mg.
Causes and symptoms of overdose
Continuous and systematic excess of the recommended doses of the drug contributes to the dangerous accumulation of crystals of folic acid. This leads to intoxication of the whole organism. For occasional (single) overdose symptoms of poisoning does not happen. The excess of the drug is excreted by the kidneys without violation of disability rights.
Symptoms of overdose of folic acid:
- From the digestive system – nausea, bitter taste in the mouth, vomiting, flatulence, bloating, discomfort in the epigastric region (stomach), occasional diarrhea, in severe cases, anorexia.
- The immune system – allergic reactions on the skin (itching, scratching, eczema, urticaria), respiratory failure, bronchial spasm, lowering blood pressure, in severe cases, anaphylactic shock.
- From the nervous system – fever, chills, disorders of sleep at night, irritability, hyperactivity, and in severe cases convulsions.
- With the genitourinary system – a violation of the filtration function of kidneys due to inflammation and hypertrophy of the tubular epithelium.
Excess folic acid in the body is often masked by vitamin B12 deficiency. This is due to the fact that both vitamin cause anemia. Distinctive signs – in case of poisoning folic acid is never a feeling of numbness or tingling in the fingers, changes in skin color (darkening of the palms or yellowness).
Overdose of folic acid during pregnancy does not affect child development. Side effects occur only in women – itching, skin rash, allergic dermatitis.
Poisoning folic acid
The specific antidote to folic acid was not detected. Therefore, all actions in rendering first aid to the victim are reduced to symptoms of poisoning.
If a man once took a large dose of the drug to prevent the development of side effects may be gastric lavage. This is advisable if the reception has been no more than an hour. To clean the stomach, should induce vomiting. The algorithm of the procedure:
- The victim to sit on a chair, cover with a towel to the feet to put a bowl or bucket.
- To drink within 2-3 minutes of 0.8-1 l of pure water.
- Ask the person to open his mouth and two fingers to put pressure on the tongue, it will cause a gag reflex.
- After the procedure rinse your mouth.
- You can give the sorbent is activated charcoal or white charcoal, enterosgel, smectite. This displays the portion of the drug from the intestine.
If a person has a fever, he shows antipyretics – paracetamol, ibuprofen, aspirin.
If you feel discomfort in stomach and bitterness in mouth you can drink antacid drugs – Almagel, aluminium phosphate gel, Rennie. They envelop the mucous stomach and protect it from irritations, relieve swelling and redness.
To calm the nervous system you can drink teas with mint or lemon balm, Valerian tablets. These funds will not bring harm to the body and helps to restore emotional imbalance, to improve the quality of sleep.
Since folic acid is excreted by the kidneys, during the recovery period the body needs to drink at least 2.5 liters of water a day. It will relieve the excretory system, will reduce overall toxicity.
Prevention of overdose
To avoid hypervitaminosis folic acid, you need to follow recommendations and take into account the features of the application.
With caution vitamin is prescribed to those patients who have not clarified the diagnosis of anemia or I don’t know its origin. In this case, the acid is harmful, because it puts to diagnose malignant blood diseases.
During treatment, the folic acid you need to constantly monitor General blood counts.
The product contains sugar. This should be considered in cases when it is prescribed to patients with diabetes, as well as people who have broken carbohydrate metabolism.
In old age, if you want long-term treatment, the drug is prescribed only after the test for absorption of vitamin B12.
Complications from overdose
In medical practice, complications from overdose of folic acid are extremely rare. They can occur in people with weakened immune systems – the elderly, HIV positive, premature and low weight babies.
The kids are allergic, in severe poisoning, bronchial asthma. People with chronic disorders of the cardiovascular system increases the risk of developing angina or myocardial infarction.
Chronic poisoning distorts the signs of megaloblastic anemia (including clinical parameters of the blood) and enhances neurological symptoms. This makes it difficult to establish correct and early diagnosis.
With proper use of folic acid overdose symptoms are rare. Poisoning drug does not pose a threat to human life. Pregnant excess vitamin does not affect the physiological development of the fetus. In case of poisoning symptoms you must stop taking the drug until complete recovery.