Overdose with haloperidol: symptoms, consequences
Overdosage with haloperidol and other neuroleptics
Haloperidol belongs to antipsychotic drugs, which are used in the treatment of acute psychosis, delusions and schizophrenia. When a patient is having frequent relapses, the drug is recommended for use in injection. Haloperidol is an antipsychotic, it is issued only on prescription. In America to prescribe the drug court may, if requested by the psychiatrist. An overdose of haloperidol detrimental to human health. If you do not provide timely assistance, the patient could die.
Haloperidol is useful for first aid. It effectively removes the delusions and hallucinations that are related to productive symptomatology. Sometimes the drug can cause secondary negative symptoms. Proved that alcohol, drugs, sleeping pills, tranquilizers, do not mix with haloperidol.
Indications for use
The drug has a broad spectrum of action. Primarily it is used as a maintenance treatment in schizophrenia. Haloperidol is prescribed if there are temporary or permanent mental disorder:
- Acute psychosis as a result of taking the drug or drugs; psychosis somatogenic nature, hallucinatory disorder, delirium.
- Delirium – an altered state of consciousness in which a person loses orientation in time and space, suffering from hallucinations, emotional affective disorders.
- Behavioral disorders associated with age-related changes in the elderly.
- Children’s autism.
- Withdrawal syndrome is the reaction that occurs in response to stop or reduce the dosage of alcohol, drugs, medicines. The health of the person deteriorates, headaches, increased sweatiness, convulsions, tremor of limbs, disturbed sleep. Behavior also changes: the person becomes anxious, depressed, irritable.
- The treatment of neurological diseases (chorea, Tourette’s syndrome).
- Nausea and vomiting that occur in the postoperative period, radiation sickness or after chemotherapy.
- Therapy pain syndrome (used complex).
- Resistant hiccups.
Complications and side effects from taking haloperidol
Haloperidol more frequently than other drugs cause neuroleptic syndrome. Its symptoms in most cases occur in women after 45 years, suffering from organic brain damage. Men are less prone to the syndrome.
The consequences of the use of haloperidol should include the following condition:
- akathisia (uncontrolled internal unease with the inability of a person to sit in one place);
- depression with high suicidal risk;
- constipation, urinary retention, dryness in the mouth;
- changes in the cardiovascular, the digestive, circulatory, and endocrine systems;
- disorders of metabolism (rapid weight gain, sweating, swelling);
- allergic reaction (occurs most often);
- the increase in reaction time.
Psychiatric drugs, whether weak or strong tranquilizers, stimulants, antidepressants can cause serious side effects. Haloperidol has the ability to reduce the intensity of sympathomimetics, including epinephrine. The combined use of drugs causing hypotension and tachycardia.
Overdose with haloperidol
Studies conducted on animals showed that haloperidol poisoning is extremely rare, since for therapeutic purposes it is administered in small doses. In this volume Haldol can cause a side effects. The first symptoms indicating the dose of the drug:
- the headache that occurs systematically;
- failures in the endocrine system;
- the appearance of problems with the stomach and intestines;
- a child is diagnosed with mental development.
In severe cases, a person can fall into a coma. The brain is thus broken, since the cells die off. Can begin irreversible processes. Apply the product to be only in the amount that was prescribed by a doctor. Self-medication can lead to death.
The most pronounced symptoms of poisoning with haloperidol:
- confusion reactions;
- the decrease in blood pressure (hypotension);
- tremor (shaking) in the limbs or throughout the body;
- increased muscle tone;
- respiratory depression;
- the appearance of ventricular arrhythmias.
Prekomatosnoe condition can be so severe that a person develops shock.
Haloperidol poisoning in a child
According to statistics, the number of children who have a recorded chronic or acute poisoning by haloperidol and other drugs, increased significantly. Most of the victims are children under the age of three. It is not always clear how the drug got into the body of children. In the Irkutsk region recorded a case of mass poisoning haloperidol Schoolgirls. The mother of one of the students was suffering from a mental illness. A child brought tablets into school to entertain friends. As a result, 4 of the 6 girls were in intensive care. Recorded case of poisoning through food. The cause of the incident is not established.
Symptoms and stages of toxicity with haloperidol
The development of toxicity occurs in several stages.
The first starts in 20 minutes after taking the drug. The person feels increased sleepiness, lack of energy, apathy. Breath and speech remain normal. Signs of poisoning are the next day.
In the second stage the person falls into a deep sleep. Reflexes are present, but poorly expressed. Reactions have no, the breath weakened. The color of the skin was normal.
Symptoms characteristic of the third stage, saying that the man is in a critical situation. Reflexes and sensitivity disappear. Pressure drops to low, breathing becomes shallow. The skin becomes dry, the lips crack, appears bluish. Comes a coma.
In the fourth stage, the patient is removed from the coma. He begins to answer simple questions, perceives it. It was during this period, the doctor can determine if there are any consequences. The most dangerous is cerebral edema, changes in skin (like burns), heart failure.
The fourth stage is less dangerous than the third. If the patient for some time not to withdraw from the coma, the brain dies, there comes a clinical death, and then physical.
Assistance in case of overdose with haloperidol
First aid when the dose of the drug depends on the condition of the people. If conscious, it is necessary to wash out the stomach and cause vomiting. A suitable solution of potassium permanganate or water in large quantity. After the contents came out, it is recommended to wash the stomach with clean water again. Activated carbon is very effective because it helps to remove toxins from the body.
Other activities must be performed by a doctor. As a rule, the patient urgently hospitalitynet. If the doctors haven’t arrived yet, and the person experience symptoms that are typical for the second or third stage, all you need to do to not fell asleep. There is a risk that the patient will fall into a coma from which it is difficult to remove.
If the person is in a coma, there is no clear clinical picture, treatment consists of supporting respiratory function. Introduces the endotracheal tube, or an artificial respiration, if it is depressed.
It is also necessary to observe on the monitor the status of the cardiovascular system. If the patient is hypotensive, should be inserted into the body of a large volume of fluid. The alternative is blood plasma or concentrated albumin. Adrenaline is not recommended, because in combination with haloperidol, it can cause extreme hypotension.
If the patient has marked extrapyramidal disorders, should be administered to him any of the antiparkinsonian drugs. The drug is administered gradually. Sharply you can’t undo it because the patient’s condition may deteriorate.
After the events of a person cannot always restore health. To the residual phenomena include the following:
- hypersensitivity of the skin;
- failures in the endocrine system.
Further dosage of the drug takes place under the strict supervision of a doctor. The amount administered is increased with each new admission. The magnification is determined by a specialist. If the patient drinks haloperidol tablets should be aware that the drug should occur after a meal, as there is a risk of nausea and vomiting.
Allowable dosage of neuroleptics
The neuroleptic drugs that are designed to reduce the arousal and affective reactions in patients with mental disorders. Their effect on the body is dictated by the antipsychotic properties of components.
Dosage of neuroleptic drugs specified by the doctor. There is a list of somatic disorders in which endurance towards the components decreases dramatically. The risk group includes the following categories:
- children under the age of three years;
- persons suffering from diseases of the kidneys and liver;
- women during pregnancy and lactation.
To the group of neuroleptic drugs. The maximum permissible dose for each of them varies from 15 to 50 mg/kg. the Important role played by the individual tolerance of a substance. Documented cases of lethal outcome after ingestion of 0.5 g of Thorazine. For a child a lethal dose is 0.25 g. neuroleptics Poisoning in children is possible, if the dosage exceeds 5-6 mg.
The critical dose at which an adult is diagnosed with overdose of doses, 500 mg or more. Concentration in the blood of toxic substances is 1-2 mg/l, the risk of death appears when the concentration is 3 to 12 mg/L.
Stages and symptoms of poisoning with neuroleptic drugs such as the poisoning drugs. The person feels severe weakness, he begins to feel dizzy, nausea and dry mouth. Appear neurological disorders. Three-quarters of patients have a response to pain. The patient pressure decreases, pulse quickens. If the overdose occurred due to the pills, swollen mucous membranes of the mouth. Have the allergic reactions. Developing a coma. In severe cases appears neuroleptic malignant syndrome, which threatens a fatal outcome.
Haloperidol is one of the most effective drugs belonging to the group of neuroleptics. It has a sedative effect on the human body, promotes the effects of other drugs (hypnotics and analgesics). The drug is contraindicated for people suffering from diseases of the Central nervous system. Studies have shown that long-term use of haloperidol can cause signs of diabetes and glaucoma. Therefore, before prescribing, the physician should see the patient somatic diseases.