Poisoning and vomiting in a child: what to do at home
Poisoning and vomiting in a child – causes and emergency care
Children’s bodies are more susceptible to the effects of toxins, poisons, chemicals.
Poisoning and vomiting in a child up to 3 years occurs in the home. Older children can be poisoned by attending pre-school and school institutions.
The most common cause of poisoning ─ food poisoning. It also affects all children’s age categories. In second place ─ gassing, which is the most dangerous. Another cause of poisoning, especially among children during the first 2 years of life ─ drugs, household chemicals.
The cause of food poisoning ─ substandard products. Food is potentially dangerous if:
- the violation of sanitary norms and rules of storage of ready meals;
- incorrect heat treatment products;
- experiments with new cooking techniques;
- the use of exotic ingredients and dishes.
The symptoms of food intoxication
The main symptoms of food poisoning:
- pain in the abdomen.
They occur within 48 hours after eating bad food. If the symptoms are not acute, and overall health of the child is satisfactory, then the poisoning can be managed independently at home. But to predict the development of response to poisoning is impossible. Therefore, the first thing to do when food poisoning and vomiting ─ to call the doctor, even when the child feels relatively normal.
Urgently to call an ambulance in that case, if the main symptoms are accompanied by these conditions:
- the body temperature rises above 37.5;
- the child does not want or can not drink a lot of fluids which is needed for removing poison from the body;
- repeatedly tearing;
- no relief occurs within two days after the poisoning;
- children up to three years;
- severe muscle weakness;
- developing a yellowness of the skin and mucous membranes (a sign of liver toxicity);
- skin rash of the child;
- blood in the stool or vomit (in the stool red blood in the stomach contents ─ the color of coffee grounds due to contact with hydrochloric acid);
- the dark rich color of urine or its absence for 6 hours;
- mass poisoning ─ ill several family members.
Attention! If the child on the background of vomiting, symptoms of lesions of the nervous system ─ double vision, trouble swallowing, confused speech, these are signs of dangerous infectious diseases, such as botulism. The pathogen lives in canned goods. When ingested, it infects the nerve trunks and neurons. The illness is severe and requires immediate hospitalization. Method of treatment only one ─ introduction of specific serums.
How to assist the child
If the child has poisoned with poor-quality food, you need to know what to do and how to give him first aid.
If the time of ingestion to onset of symptoms of poisoning was not more than 30 minutes, you need to induce vomiting. Pre-child needs to drink. You can give him two glasses of water or milk. Then child sit in an upright position, ask him to open his mouth and press two fingers on the tongue root (you can use a spoon).
Important! Children under 4 years induce vomiting dangerous gastric content may get into the respiratory tract.
If vomiting does not appear, give the activated coal from calculation 1 tablet on 1 kg of weight. It neutralizes the poisons trapped in the colon. Toxic substances that have already managed to get into the blood, are excreted by the kidneys in the urine.
During this period, you must cancel the appointment of any food and to provide the child with sufficient amount of drinking. The more liquid, the safer for the body.
Ideal for intoxication, it is a means for oral rehydration ─ the drugs that make up for the loss of fluid in the body. In cases of poisoning they help the body excrete the poisons. Are available in the form of solutions or powders for their preparation. The products clearly stipulates who, they are safe for children of all ages, have no side effects and should be in the home medicine Cabinet. Home, a solution for oral administration (drinking), in the hospital they are administered intravenously.
For the most rapid onset of effect, the liquid must be equal to the body temperature, to quickly be absorbed into the bloodstream. For food poisoning you need to drink often and in small SIPS. Can’t drink fruit drinks, fruit drinks, sodas. If the child refuses to drink, you should try to convince him by any means. In an extreme case, to drink that drink, to which he will agree: tea, juice (after diluting it with water).
If the child is 3 years and less fluid deficit for poisoning threat. Violations occur in the work of the kidneys when urine with a high concentration of toxins can kill kidney.
When deterioration requires urgent hospitalization in infectious Department with further medical treatment.
Prevention of food poisoning
Before each meal to wash hands thoroughly. Soap must be in contact with the skin for at least 30 seconds.
The rules of cooking and food storage:
- careful heat treatment, observance of technology of preparation;
- storage in a refrigerator at a temperature not exceeding 5 °C in the freezer-at -15 °C;
- at room temperature the products must be no more than two hours in winter, one hour in the summer;
- cross contamination ─ contact raw and finished products.
Small children instinctively can feel poor-quality food, such as smell or taste not the same as always. The sensitivity of the receptors above, than in adults. If the child refuses a favorite dish, don’t force him to eat.
In everyday life children poisoned by carbon monoxide or natural gas. This is the result of violations of operating furnaces, boilers, gas stoves. And in cases when small children are left unattended. Such poisoning can be attributed to nicotine smoke.
The mechanism of carbon monoxide poisoning, symptoms
The hemoglobin contained in the blood, ─ a carrier gas. It easily attaches itself to oxygen molecules (O2) in the lungs, delivers them to cells, and from there takes the molecules of carbon dioxide and is released from them in the lungs. In contact with carbon monoxide (co) in the body, it tightly binds with hemoglobin. This connection lasts for 10-15 hours. There comes oxygen starvation of the body.
The symptoms of gas poisoning:
- impaired coordination.
If the child has poisoned with gas in severe, he is unconscious.
Important! The interaction of hemoglobin with carbon monoxide erythrocytes (red blood cells) are painted in pink color. The skin turns pink, becoming rosy. This condition is mistaken for improvement, although it is evidence to the contrary. At any time can cause respiratory failure or heart.
Emergency care begins with providing oxygen in the room where the child is. Step by step instructions:
- Open wide the front door and prop it.
- To stop the flow of gas (close the valve on the gas hob or other units).
- Open all the Windows in the room.
- Get the child to fresh air and lay in a safe position on the side in case of vomiting.
To call an ambulance, do not move away from the victim and constantly monitor his breathing. In the case of cardiac arrest start CPR: chest compressions and artificial respiration.
Hospital treatment is to on the period when the last connection of hemoglobin with carbon monoxide, to provide oxygen to the body. The child is connected to the ventilator with a continuous supply of O2.
Lethal dose of nicotine for children is 1 g per 1 kg of body weight. If you go to the nursery immediately after Smoking enough for a child to be poisoned.
Attention! Cigarette smoke ─ one of the reasons of sudden death of infants.
The danger is when the baby inhales nicotine is smaller than tobacco when injected into the stomach. Scattered cigarettes, nicotine patches and gum, liquid for electronic cigarettes ─ all of these items are of interest to kids who are three years or less. The negligent attitude of the parents poses a direct threat to their health.
Nicotine in small doses-stimulant. In large doses ─ depresses the respiratory centre and cardiovascular system, irritate the vomiting center of the brain, causing severe repeated vomiting.
Assist in the inhalation of nicotine ─ to block access to it, ventilate the area, enhance air circulation by organizing a draft. In contact of nicotine inside ─ hospitalization.
Vomiting in children-is the first sign of poisoning. The provision of timely and correct first aid improves the overall condition, prevents the development of complications, speeds up the process of treatment and recovery.