Poisoning by exhaust fumes: symptoms, treatment
First aid and treatment of poisoning by exhaust fumes
Exhaust gases are products of combustion in the engine of a car. They contain large amounts of toxic substances. Therefore, drivers need to be especially careful. Poisoning with exhaust gases of a vehicle can have serious health consequences, including death. It’s important to recognize a poisoning with exhaust gases. You need to remember the symptoms and first aid measures the affected.
What are the exhaust gases
The car’s exhaust includes nearly two hundred different chemical compounds. Along with safe substances such as water, carbon dioxide and other, there are toxic. Among the most dangerous products of combustion of gasoline in engine release:
- Carbon monoxide or carbon monoxide. It is a colorless gas that has no odor. When it burns forms a blue flame. In case of poisoning with this compound is observed tachycardia, slowing of reactions, throbbing pain in the head. If too strong intoxication, hallucinations appear, the person loses consciousness and dies.
- Oxide and nitrogen dioxide. Nitric oxide has no color and smell. When it is contact with oxygen forms nitrogen dioxide. It is a brownish gas that has a very specific flavor. Poisoning with these compounds trigger the cough, impaired respiratory function. If the concentration of toxic substances is too large, there is pulmonary edema and tachycardia.
- The hydrocarbon compounds. They are considered to be carcinogenic substances, therefore, can trigger the development of cancer. Especially dangerous are hydrocarbons that are exposed to ultraviolet light. Inhalation causes severe lung damage.
- Heavy metals. With prolonged effects on the body develops insomnia, a feeling of restlessness disturbed brain processes.
In some cases the fuel can be used with leaded fuel. It includes tetraethyl lead. This compound has the ability to accumulate in the body and have a slow poison. A symptom of this process is the appearance of the edges of the gums, sallow complexion, changes in the blood and urine tests.
This is not a complete list of toxic components of exhaust gases. To avoid severe health effects, you need to try to minimize the contact with these compounds.
Effects of exhaust gases on the body
The severity of the injury will largely depend on the concentration of toxic substances. If it is too large, then death can occur. A crucial role is played by carbon monoxide. It reacts with the protein of red blood cells. In the result, synthesized a substance that blocks the supply of oxygen to the body cells.
From intoxication of average weight can suffer from various systems of the body:
- Nervous. Appear severe headaches, slows down mental and physical activity, plagued by nausea.
- Respiratory. There are attacks of suffocation, shortness of breath, reduced vascular tone. In some cases, may stop breathing.
- Cardiovascular. Symptoms of pronounced hypoxia of the heart, poor circulation. The symptoms resemble a heart attack.
- Urinary. Observed difficulty urinating, impaired kidney function.
If time does not provide first aid, the disease will progress. This will lead to irreversible consequences.
How is poisoning the exhaust gases
One of the most common and dangerous situations of poisoning becomes inhalation of exhaust fumes in a closed space. If the driver drove into the garage and left the engine on while the door is closed, contaminants will quickly fill the room and lead to a severe defeat.
Poisoning often occurs in mechanics that violate safety regulations when handling vehicles. Suffer also the owners in whose machines are faulty ventilation system. Intoxication can occur when the transport of goods, with an open trunk.
Symptoms of poisoning exhaust gases can emerge from those who live in the vicinity of the car Park. In this case, the toxic substances will gradually accumulate in the body.
The gradual accumulation of toxic substances in the body leads to slow damage to internal organs, which ends in their failure.
The severity of poisoning will depend on several factors:
- The concentration of toxic substances in the inhaled air.
- The intensity of inhalation at the time of poisoning.
- The temperature of the environment.
- Physical activity at the time of poisoning.
These factors can greatly aggravate the disease and hinder the healing process.
Symptoms of poisoning may not appear immediately. Sometimes the man did not immediately realize that inhales the exhaust gases. This leads to a significant deterioration of the human condition. Therefore, it is necessary to be attentive to the first signs of damage:
- The emergence of a strong headache.
- In the ears starts to make noise.
- His heart starts to pound.
- Heaviness is felt in the occipital region.
- Plagued by asthma attacks.
If not in time to get some fresh air, before my eyes a veil of darkness, the person feels a weakness and insatiable desire to sleep. May appear nausea and vomiting. In the final stage the person loses consciousness. If no help arrives, the person dies.
To save the life of a victim, it is important to give him first aid. It includes the following activities:
- Call for an ambulance. Only a doctor can correctly assess the severity of the lesion, the condition of the victim.
- Eliminate source of poisoning. Do not forget about own security. If you need to go into a room filled with exhaust gas, attach to the nose of a moist clean cloth.
- Remove patient to open air.
- If the person is unconscious, bring him to his senses is possible by means of ammonia. Gently hold it under his nose. Ensure that the breath was not too strong and cause burn of mucous membrane of the nose.
- If the victim is not awake, but his pulse is not very strong, will have to resort to artificial respiration and indirect heart massage.
- In order to strengthen the circulation of blood through the body, RUB the chest of the person and apply a cold compress.
- If vomiting, turn the victim on his side so he wouldn’t drown.
- After a man came to help him to take a semi-sitting position. On the upper and lower extremities is recommended to apply tourniquets. This will reduce the blood flow to the lungs.
Further measures to rescue the victim must take a physician. In most cases, require immediate hospitalization and treatment in hospital.
The ambulance must provide a victim with additional first aid measures to be taken to hospital for further treatment. The whole process of treatment will include the following activities:
- To avoid complications will help the introduction of cardiac drugs. Also prescribed decongestants and diuretics.
- In the blood of a man injected glucose. In the early stages of poisoning applied a 10% calcium chloride.
- To restore normal breathing may need artificial ventilation on specialized equipment.
- Detoxify the body from toxic substances is carried out using the procedure of hemosorption.
- If the threat of development of pulmonary edema has passed, administered glucose and saline solutions. After this process is stimulated frequent urination.
- As the prevention of complications prescribe antibiotics.
- If there are complications of the cardiovascular system, prescribe specialized medication.
If the poisoning occurs in a serious stage, then the treatment will be prolonged. After the experts recommend that the rehabilitation in sanatorium-resort conditions.
To eliminate the effects of poisoning will help proper nutrition. The diet should include more fruits, vegetables, juices, milk and sweets.
How to prevent poisoning
Greater danger is posed by enclosed spaces: garages, Parking lots, workshops. You must strictly adhere to all safety regulations. To prevent poisoning, follow these guidelines:
- While in the garage, never start the engine. If it must be done, ensure that all the doors were wide open.
- Check the condition of your vehicle. Timely pass technical inspection and eliminate all identified malfunctions.
- If you have to drive with the malfunction, carefully monitor your condition. At the first signs of intoxication immediately get out of the car.
- Try to control the quality of gasoline and oil.
- Do not allow overheating of the engine.
Such simple measures will allow you to avoid intoxication and to maintain their health.
Poisoning with exhaust gases can cause failure of internal organs and death. Therefore, it’s important to recognize the problem and begin treatment. Do not try to cope with the disease themselves, immediately seek help from professionals.