Poisoning by nitrogen and the influence of nitrogen on the body
Nitrogen poisoning, or the threat nitrogen
80% of the air we breathe consists of nitrogen. This gas is transparent and colourless, has no smell. According to studies, people 2% is composed of nitrogen, it enters into the composition of some cells and tissues. In spite of this, poisoned with nitrogen, or nitrogenous compounds is very simple. Such toxicity is dangerous to humans and can lead to death. In this article, we considered the poisoning of nitrogen, its causes and symptoms, and how to provide first aid to the man with the nitrogen intoxication.
The main reasons for the development of nitrogen intoxication
Nitrogen is an inert gas, but in the industry it can also be used in the form of nitrogenous compounds and solutions. The most common cause of nitrogen intoxication is violation of safety rules when working with this chemical.
Poisoning by nitrogen may occur in the situations listed below:
- Ingesting substances, which include nitrogenous compounds such as nitric oxide, used in medicine to treat certain cardiac pathologies.
- Failure to comply with the rules with nitrogenous fertilizers. They are used in the agricultural industry to improve productivity and land quality.
- During long-term use of gases in medicine. Earlier in medicine for anesthesia was used «laughing gas», nitrous oxide. This substance had an impact on the Central nervous system and provoke nitrogen narcosis.
- Prolonged immersion of divers at depth. In the breathing mixtures used, the concentration of nitrogen sufficiently large, prolonged deep diving may develop the nitrogen poisoning of the diver, the so-called deep disease. Most often it develops when diving to a depth of over 25 meters.
- In accidents in the factories, accompanied by the release into the air large amounts of nitrogen. Nitrogen gas is often used for transportation of petrol, oil and some chemical liquids. He is able to fill the empty space, without affecting the composition of the surrounding substances.
- When burning films and videotapes. Combustion in air produces hazardous large amount of nitrogen. To dispose of such films with fire is impossible.
Please note that the nutritional Supplement called Е942 is a nitrogenous compound, it is harmful to the human body. Do not buy products when they see it in their composition.
What is the impact of nitrogen on the body
Can we breathe nitrogen? Despite the fact that this substance is part of the air that we constantly breathe, intentionally breathe it in its pure or concentrated form quite dangerous. Most people do not know what is dangerous nitrogen, and do not adhere to safety rules when working with it.
Nitrogen has the following effect on the human body:
- affects the Central nervous system. Its molecules enter the nerve cells, neurons, and disrupt his work. Such processes lead to impaired activity of the cardiovascular system and respiratory system;
- dissolves in fatty tissue, causing intoxication.
Mechanisms of influence of nitrogen on the human body are still not fully understood. The reasons for developing a state of euphoria or anesthesia, not a famous scientist.
Clinical symptoms of nitrogen poisoning
Symptoms of nitrogen poisoning grow rapidly, for 10-15 minutes. The diver they occur during the lifting up. The severity of the victim depends on the concentration of nitrogen in inhaled air and the duration of contact with him.
The main clinical manifestations of poisoning with nitrogen include the following symptoms:
- panic attacks and the emergence of feelings of intense fear. The person becomes restless and agitated;
- cramps in skeletal muscles (calf, thigh, etc.). These processes are accompanied by severe pain, cramps;
- breathing problems. In severe forms of the underlying disease, may develop pulmonary edema. A person develops shortness of breath, dry or wet cough, paleness or blueness of the skin;
- feeling of General weakness, lethargy. Intoxicated with nitrogen the person may complain of reduced performance and sleepiness;
- pain in the chest develops as a result of lung alveoli;
- bruising nasolabial triangle, legs and arms. This symptom is a sign of acute hypoxia – lack of oxygen;
- tachycardia – rapid heartbeat. The pulse rate may exceed 110-120 beats per minute. Can join arrhythmia – abnormal heart rhythm;
- hyperthermia – increase in body temperature. For nitric intoxication characteristic low-grade fever in which the temperature rises to 37,5-38 degrees;
- hypertension – increase blood pressure;
- with the development of pulmonary edema joins wet cough that may be accompanied by discharge of foam from mouth;
- disturbance of consciousness, falling into a deep coma develops on the background of acute respiratory failure. The person ceases to respond to the voice of other people and tactile stimulation.
What to do in acute poisoning nitrogen
In cases of suspected nitrogen poisoning should immediately call the ambulance. If a person continues to breathe polluted air is nitrogen, it should be immediately put on the street, in a safe place.
Nitrogen is a very tricky substance. Having no smell and color, he quietly poisons the man. Suspected intoxication can be developed only after the appearance of clinical symptoms of poisoning.
Remember, to treat nitrogen poisoning yourself. The patient needs skilled medical care and correctly prescribed treatment.
During removal of the person from the danger zone with the contaminated nitrogen air need to take care of their security. According to the safety rules before entering the area where there was a release of nitrogen, it is necessary to wear a mask.
Person inhaling nitrogen, it is necessary to reassure, to tell him that his life was not in danger. Loosen his shirt and tie, make sure that nothing prevented him from breathing freely.
If you have the opportunity, give him drink warm sweet tea or water. The liquid will help to bring him to his senses and lowering the intoxication syndrome.
What to do if poisoned and lost consciousness
Loss of consciousness – a common symptom of nitrogen toxicity. In this situation, it is important not to panic, to try to maintain the life of the victim before the arrival of ambulance crews. Put it on a firm and level surface on the back.
In order that the person choked on my own eager languages, saliva or vomit, and his head to turn sideways. In this position the risk of aspiration is minimal. Lift his legs at 45-50 degrees and lock in position. This way you will improve the blood flow to the heart and brain.
Continually monitor the presence of pulse and breathing in the victim. The presence of heart rate is the most convenient to check on the carotid artery in the cervical region. Where this vessel passes beneath the skin and is well detectable.
The presence of breathing can be checked by placing the hand on the chest of the poisoned person. When you inhale it will sit up, exhale, down.
In the absence of breathing and heartbeat should immediately begin to carry out resuscitation. Assisting patients on their own, spend chest compressions, if you do it together with someone, can also carry out artificial respiration, «mouth to mouth».
Treatment nitrogen poisoning
The SMP team will be given first aid. It is held on the site and aimed at maintaining the life of the patient before arrival to the hospital.
First aid consists of:
- Connect the person to the oxygen through a mask.
- Droppers with solutions. They are necessary for the treatment of intoxication syndrome.
- Drugs that regulate heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate.
- When expressed excitement and panic attacks can be used sedatives, barbiturates. They are also effective in convulsions.
Hospitalization is carried out in the intensive care unit. Doctors assess the patient’s condition and carry out the correction of disorders in the body. Treatment is aimed at elimination of pulmonary edema and to combat hypoxia.
In parallel with the treatment in the hospital performed the examination of the patient. It helps to objectively assess the severity of his condition and prescribe the necessary medicines. Diagnostics consists of:
- the General analysis of blood;
- General analysis of urine;
- gas analysis of blood;
- definition of electrolytes in the blood;
- biochemical analysis of blood;
- radiography of the lungs.
Treatment prognosis depends on timeliness of starting treatment. If the poisoning occurred from the diver, the doctor decides whether the person snorkeling in the future.
Nitrogen poisoning most often occurs in scuba divers, and people in contact with him at work. This gas has no color and smell, and suspected poisoning them in the clinical picture. When the first symptoms of intoxication should call an ambulance. The treatment is carried out in the hospital, the ICU. It is aimed at combating pulmonary edema and the elimination of hypoxia, electrolyte disturbances in the body.