Poisoning citric acid: what are the symptoms

The symptoms and treatment of poisoning citric acid

Is it possible to poison citric acid? This substance is widely used by many in everyday life, added to some dishes. Usually it is stored in the kitchen, do not apply to him cautiously. In this article we have considered the main causes of poisoning citric acid, the symptoms and signs of this condition, possible complications, the rules of rendering of first aid, components of the inpatient treatment and methods of prevention of poisoning.

Where to use citric acid

Citric acid is widely used in the domestic environment, in the industry. It was previously obtained from the juice of lemons. Now it is obtained as a result of chemical reactions in the processing of sugar or some species of mold.

At home it is used for cleansing of utensils or sanitary ware of plaque and scale. Some Housewives use it for canning and cooking, marinating meat and fish. In small quantities it is added to the tea instead of lemon.

The food industry uses citric acid as a strong preservative. This substance is widely used in the manufacture of cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.

The causes of poisoning

The main cause of poisoning citric acid is the irregularity of its use and storage. Many people use this stuff at home, not thinking about the danger and trying to hide it from children or domestic animals.

The following are the main reasons that may develop poisoning citric acid.

  • Accidental ingestion of citric acid. Most often poisoning from this chemical substance develops in children, which may mistakenly eat it. Poisoning may develop during the flooding of the kettle with citric acid to clean the scale. This chemical substance has a characteristic color and smell, and people can drink, pouring himself a Cup from the kettle.
  • Special poisoning citric acid is common in people with suicidal tendencies. People know that this chemical can result in death, use it in a lethal dosage.
  • Poisoning due to the addition of citric acid to the dish. Toxicity can develop when mixing it in tea or compote. Wrong selection of the dosage of citric acid can lead to severe poisoning.
  • Contact with concentrated citric acid to the skin or mucous membranes, the conjunctiva leads to severe burns, vision loss.

The symptoms and signs of poisoning citric acid

In case of poisoning with citric acid, symptoms develop shortly after ingestion. Their severity depends on the concentration and quantity of consumed acid. The condition of the poisoned person quickly deteriorating. He develops a number of symptoms.

  • Sharp and severe pain in the oral cavity, the esophagus and the stomach develops as a result of chemical burns of the mucous membranes of these organs. The higher the concentration of the acid, the stronger and deeper the burn it causes.
  • Headache, dizziness, General weakness – symptoms that develop due to intoxication.
  • Nausea and possible vomiting. Vomit can be painted in black or red. Vomiting red contents is a symptom of internal bleeding from the affected vessels of the esophagus. In violation of the integrity of the vascular wall of the stomach or duodenum develops vomiting black. This dark color of vomit is due to the chemical reaction between the blood and acid, which is protein folding.
  • Melena polabiny black stool, symptom of gastrointestinal bleeding.
  • The pallor and blueness of the skin – a symptom that develops with abundant hemorrhage.
  • Respiratory failure, development of shortness of breath. The patient breathes superficially and often complains of a feeling of lack of air.
  • Tachycardia, palpitations, heart rate exceed 110-120 beats/min.
  • Hypotension – decrease in blood pressure. Below 80/60 mm Hg. article
  • Cramps throughout the body are caused by lesions of the Central nervous system.
  • Loss of consciousness, deep coma, in which the poisoned person ceases to respond to external stimuli, does not respond to the questions.
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When hit acids on the mucosa or the skin develops a burning sensation and pain at the site of contact with chemical. The skin is red, may blister filled with serous transparent contents.

Possible complications

Receiving acid inside leads to severe disturbances in the whole organism. Increased acidity of the blood, whereby it becomes more viscous and prone to blood clots.

Complications and consequences of the use of citric acid include:

  • internal bleeding from damaged blood vessels of the esophagus, stomach or intestines;
  • painful shock – a serious condition that develops as a result of a burn of the mucous membrane of the mouth, esophagus and stomach;
  • acute renal failure – kidney failure, due to which they lose the ability to clean the blood and produce urine. Acid into the blood, causing damage to the internal structures of the kidney and leads to a severe violation of their functionality. The patient developed anuria (daily urine amount does not exceed 50-100 ml), swelling, yellow skin;
  • acute liver failure – a condition in which the affected hepatocytes. All substances that enter the blood, liver neytralizuya. This organ is the first to suffer acute poisonings. The patient yellow skin and visible mucous membranes, there is a sharp pain in the right hypochondrium, impaired chair;
  • pulmonary embolism (PE) develops due to thickening of blood and the formation in it of small vessels.

Please note that people suffering from coronary heart disease due to ingestion of citric acid may develop acute myocardial infarction.

The provision of first aid

What to do in case of poisoning by citric acid? Remember that poisoned this chemical a person needs skilled care. To carry out self-treatment is prohibited. With the development of poisoning should immediately call the ambulance. What is your exact address, it will save physicians time.

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Before arrival of doctors start their own to help the victim. Below are the basic elements of first aid that you can render yourself the victim while waiting brigade SMP.

  1. Ensure the patient calm and in bed. Open the room window for admission of fresh air.
  2. Let the person rinse mouth with plain water.
  3. Put on the stomach of the patient an ice pack. The cold will cause vasospasm, slows down the absorption of acid in the blood and reduce bleeding.

Remember, that it is strictly forbidden to independently perform gastric lavage and induce vomiting. During vomiting, acid re-damage the mucosa of the esophagus. Also it is impossible to neutralize the consumed acid in an alkaline solution. During the neutralization releases massive amounts of gas, which can cause rupture of the walls of the stomach, lead to massive internal bleeding.

If the acid gets on the skin or mucous membranes, rinse the damaged area of the body under running water for 15-30 minutes.

In case of unconsciousness place the victim on a firm and level surface, turn his head to one side. To improve blood circulation in the brain and the heart, lift up his legs. Before arrival of physicians check for pulse and breathing from him.

To check breathing, you need to put your hand on the chest of a person and follow her tour. When you inhale, the hand will rise when you exhale, down.

Pulse it is best to check on the carotid artery in the neck. There she goes right under the skin and is well detectable.

If you stop the heartbeat should immediately carry out chest compressions. The frequency of chest compressions: 100-120 per min If you are doing CPR by yourself, do not waste time on CPR, focus on heart massage.

Components of first aid

First medical care is provided by physicians at home. They describe the approximate number and concentration of alcohol consumed chemical. Doctors check the pulse, respiration, blood pressure and saturation and will begin treatment, which consists of:

  • gastric lavage through the probe. This is the only safe method of removing the chemical from the digestive cavity;
  • intravenous administration of antiemetic and analgesic drugs;
  • IVS with saline, glucose. These drugs are necessary for the normalization of acid-base balance;
  • with the development of internal bleeding are administered drugs that reduce blood loss;
  • the drugs that regulate the cardiovascular system.

After first aid the patient hospitalitynet immediately to the nearest hospital. Treatment can be performed in resuscitation, toxicology or surgical ward.

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Treatment in a hospital

In the hospital the patient receives adequate medical care. Depending on the condition of the patient, the amount of alcohol consumed acids and timely treatment to physicians, treatment may include several components, listed below.

  • Repeated gastric lavage through the probe, which may be necessary for more effective removal of acids from the body.
  • Hemodialysis – cleansing the blood of toxins. This procedure is necessary to protect the kidneys from damage, is subject to severe poisoning.
  • Sorbents – drugs that neutralized and removed from the intestinal remnants of chemicals and products of inflammatory reactions. To reduce the irritation of the used liquid sorbents (APSCO, smectite, enterosgel).
  • Diet. With a strong burn of the esophagus, the food is introduced through a nasogastric tube.
  • Surgical bleeding.
  • The drugs needed to prevent blood clots, regulate blood clotting (contraindicated in bleeding).
  • Drugs, healing the mucosa of the digestive tract.

To identify complications and accurate assessment at the hospital, carried out a detailed examination of the patient. It consists of:

  • the General analysis of blood;
  • General analysis of urine;
  • biochemical analysis of blood;
  • ultrasound examination of internal organs;
  • a gastroscopy.

Features prevent poisoning citric acid

In most cases, poisoning citric acid develops as a result of careless treatment of her. Below, we have gathered for you the tips that will help you to protect yourself and your family from poisoning by this substance:

  • citric acid keep out of reach of children;
  • when you add citric acid to tea, fruit drinks or meals, follow her dosing.
  • when pouring kettles or other utensils with a solution of citric acid, tell everyone at home about it;
  • working with citric acid, wear protective eyewear and rubber gloves.

Poisoning citric acid most often occurs in the domestic environment. This chemical is used in preservation, the cooking and cleaning, purifying metals. Poisoning is very dangerous to humans, can lead to severe disorders and death. With the development of this pathological condition should immediately call the ambulance, put the patient on the stomach bubble with ice and give it a rinse mouth with plain water. The treatment is performed in a hospital. Its duration depends on the severity of the condition of the victim.