Poisoning with acids and alkalis: treatment, gastric lavage
Assistance in the ingestion of acids and alkalis
Most products of household chemistry consists of acids and alkalis. They are in a cleaning suspensions, and powders for washing appliances and utensils. These components have also found use in different fields of industry. Most often poisoning with acids and alkalis provoke these substances: vinegar, phosphoric acid, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, hydrated lime. General medical statistics describes many cases of such poisonings, most often affects small children. The recovery of the victim depends on the speed and accuracy of rendering the utmost assistance.
General characteristics of acids and alkalis
Acids and alkalis belong to the group of the burning substances that lead to chemical damage. Under the action of any acid on the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines proteins, which is composed of shell, coil.
If cauterizing fluid got into an empty stomach, it can cause cardiac arrest. After contact with skin, they are permanently destroyed.
Acids are divided into two types and different effects on the human body:
- Inorganic – sulphuric, hydrochloric, nitric. Lead to irreversible changes of the mucous membranes and skin, with formation of scabs in various colors. When they are swallowed almost immediately manifested life-threatening condition – severe pain in mouth, esophagus and stomach, vomiting with blood clots, the deteriorating state of the esophagus, begins a severe swelling of the larynx and develops a painful shock.
- Organic – acetic, and oxalic. They have less burning but more toxic. Poisoning of this type affects the red blood cells that are massively dissolved. There are signs of damage to the liver and kidneys. Over time, it causes severe kidney failure.
If there is a poisoning with alkalis, proteins in the stomach and intestines to dissolve, and the mucous membrane ceases to function. In cases of poisoning by ammonia, lime, caustic chlorine turns severe damage to the respiratory tract. There is swelling of tongue, larynx, develops bronchospasm or pulmonary edema.
With the defeat of the chemical substances needs to quickly find an urgent help!
The symptoms of the body with acid and alkali
In the use of scorching matter inside you may notice specific signs of poisoning, which are listed next:
- Characteristic traces of stains on the face, mainly within the mouth.
- Burns of the oral mucosa.
- Sharp pain in mouth, esophagus and stomach.
- Strong salivation.
- Vomiting, often with blood streaked.
- Shortness of breath.
- The hoarse voice.
- Lividity of the skin.
- Suffocation caused by laryngeal edema.
- Blood in the urine, it is painted in pink color.
- When ingested hydrocyanic acid, first observed agitation, shortness of breath and seizures. After that, the victim loses consciousness and is no depression of all reflexes. Death occurs from bleeding in the brain.
- Poisoning salicylic acid causes acute headache, dizziness, disorder of the organs of sight and hearing, cold sweat. Strongly decreases blood pressure and there are different kinds of bleedings.
Lethal dose of acetic acid for man 50 ml, manganese – 0.3 mg per 1 kg of body weight, of hydrogen peroxide – 60-100 ml of salicylic acid (aspirin) – 10-30 grams.
First aid for acid poisoning
First aid for acid poisoning includes a number of measures aimed at reducing harmful and toxic effects on organs. The sequence of actions looks like this:
- the stomach is washed through a tube of large diameter clean water with the addition of magnesia (1 gram per liter of water). Of magnesia you can always replace with lime water. The total volume of water for irrigation can reach 10 liters. Soda for washing of the stomach cannot be used.
- if gastric lavage is impossible to organize, then you need to give to the patient to drink raw milk, any vegetable oil, rice water, raw protein, or any other enveloping the stomach means;
If the poisoning of carbolic acid, or its analogs (phenol, Lysol), the consumption of milk and any fat is strictly forbidden! In this case, I suggest to drink a solution of magnesia or lime water.
- to reduce pain in the solar plexus put a container with ice or ice water;
- in cases of poisoning with hydrocyanic acid or its derivatives to the victim carefully wash the eyes, wash your face and administered antidotes. If the violation of the cardiac activity, carried out cardio-pulmonary resuscitation;
- in case of poisoning by salicylic acid (aspirin) washed stomach and injected into the liquid paraffin with a volume of 50-100 ml, then give saline laxatives.
If there are signs of perforation of the stomach or esophagus, perform gastric lavage can not be! The victim need to quickly get to a hospital.
Emergency treatment of alkaline poisoning
First aid if poisoning alkalis consists of the following remedial measures:
- The stomach is washed with a large volume of water with addition of vinegar or citric acid. Washing effectively enough only for 5-6 hours after the poisoning;
- If at hand is no gastric tube or to perform this procedure is impossible, give any enveloping the products, and diluted lemon juice to 1 tablespoon every 5-7 minutes.
The use of soda solution for rinsing and lavage of the stomach is forbidden!
Features of treatment
There are several points that must be considered when providing emergency care to the victim:
- If the poisoning caused by potassium permanganate, it is required to carefully handle the mucous membranes of the mouth and skin swab that is dipped in a weak solution of ascorbic acid. If ascorbic acid is missing, you can use a solution of equal parts hydrogen peroxide and vinegar. When the washing procedure produces a lot of foam. Washing with clean water does not give a complete leaching of potassium permanganate with mucous membranes and skin.
- Gastric lavage is mandatory through the probe during the first 6 hours.
- Periodically have the patient suck pieces of ice, to reduce pain in the mouth.
If the scene were Tara from under the acid or alkali, it is required to show the doctor!
The effects of poisoning by acid or alkali
The consequences of poisoning, burning chemicals very difficult. They can cause death or profound disability. Violation of the condition appears as follows:
- chemical substances cause severe burns of the vocal cords, as a result, man remains dumb;
- burns of the esophagus due to the formation of large scars that impede the swallowing of food or cause severe pain when eating. In severe cases, surgery is needed to restore the esophagus;
- in contact with acid or alkali in the eye of the person can partially or completely blind;
- disturbed function of the liver, which eventually leads to chronic jaundice.
Prevention of chemical poisoning
To protect yourself and your loved ones from accidental consumption of substances that contain acid or alkali, you need to adhere to certain rules. Not to keep the house these substances, with the exception of the really necessary components. Chemicals should be kept out of reach of children and in original package. To avoid confusion, in no event it is impossible to pour the chemicals in the containers of their drinks. Room where use alkali and acid, should be well ventilated, this is to prevent vapors of the reagents to the respiratory system.
In cases of poisoning by acids and alkalis is required as soon as possible to call an ambulance or bring the victim to the hospital.