Poisoning with sodium chloride in humans and animals
Causes and symptoms of poisoning with sodium chloride in animals and humans
Salt is not only a small white grains with a specific taste. It is a common chemical substance is NaCl, it reacts, through which other connections work, are not always safe. If too much NaCl enters the body, it causes a poisoning salt. Such intoxication is a danger not only for humans but also for different animals to help, you need to know first the symptoms of overdose and methods of assistance.
Useful than salt
Salt is not produced in the body, it can be obtained only with food. Particles of sodium and chlorine that are released upon contact with water, necessary for regulation of electrolyte balance and activation of some enzymes in the human body. A certain amount of NaCl needed for normalization of the digestive tract, without salt hydrochloric acid in the stomach is separated and normally do not have stagnation.
Excess amount of salt excreted in the urine, sweat and feces. When a person is diagnosed of acute poisoning that he suffered severe vomiting and diarrhea, in these pathological processes, together with the fluid output of the particles of sodium and chlorine. To prevent dehydration, doctors recommend to drink not just water or juice, and to use the pharmacy drug regidron, which is composed of the desired substance. If there is a lack of salt in the body, the person is stably reduced pressure, weakness and apathy.
People living in Central, a day is enough to consume about a teaspoon of salt. The inhabitants of hot countries this substance you need much more, up to three teaspoons a day, they have a lot of NaCl and then.
Why are there poisoning
Once in the stomach, the salt binds the liquid well. There is a chemical interaction, resulting in the released sodium ions, but if they become too much, there is a violation of ion balance in blood cells. This leads to a reduction of minerals, such as potassium and calcium, which is manifested by disruption of the nervous system and dehydration blood cell.
The second problem which may occur with an overdose of salt, is inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and esophagus. In the digestive organs felt a painful burning, but if overdose is permanent it is, in addition to poisoning, will lead to a gastritis or a stomach ulcer.
Salt poisoning in animals
Poisoning by common salt is not only in humans but also in domestic animals – pigs, cattle, birds. A little salt feed must like farm animals and wild contained in the wild or in zoos. For elk, deer and other wild ungulates grains of salt hung on trees or near other feeders.
Sodium chloride requires animals exactly the same as man. In animals it gets with food, the absorption of this substance occurs in the intestine. NaCl is present in the blood, gastric juice and in different tissues. With the help of chemical compounds are regulated by hormones and acid-base balance, as well as a well displayed harmful substances.
Salt poisoning of the animal can be in the case of poorly balanced diet. In addition, a veterinarian can also cause severe toxicity. Sometimes the young are prophylactically fed with salt, but if it is wrong to calculate the dosage, it may be severe poisoning and death.
Symptoms of salt poisoning in animals is very specific, so to recognize the disease is not difficult. After 10-12 hours after overdose animals refuse food and too much drink. Vomiting and shortness of breath, a lot of cattle urinate, the urine stench. Begins fever, the animal is too excited, all the time running around the paddock and crashed into the barriers. Then there are convulsions, muscle weakness, increase in breathing, increased salivation and diarrhea starts.
When the poisoning of the animal was only a few hours ago, then perform gastric lavage through a tube of large diameter and give any enveloping medium. Sick animal are offered plenty to drink and provide a good laxative. If the poisoning is severe, shows subcutaneous injections of caffeine to maintain the overall tone.
Sick cattle necessarily resettled from healthy livestock. During therapy, the animal is shown at rest.
Salt poisoning in humans
People have poisoned with salt provokes not only fluid retention, but it also breaks all the important processes occurring in the body. The victim feels a General weakness, muscle tremors, its all annoying.
Poisoning in humans is possible, if he loves abundantly salted food. And it needs to happen continuously for a long time. There are cases when people at once consumes too much salty foods, and it causes intoxication. Doctors have noticed that most of the poisoning salt observed in heavy smokers and lovers of alcoholic beverages.
If one consumed too many salty foods, then the symptoms of poisoning are the following:
- increased thirst, which did not manage to quench;
- lowering blood pressure, which is accompanied by weakness and dizziness;
- severe vomiting, possible streaks of blood that indicate the defeat of the gastric mucosa;
- shortness of breath, which indicates oxygen starvation;
- blue discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to inhibition of the function of transportation of oxygen in the blood;
- a variety of neurological disorders, which can manifest itself as the typical migraine, and severe psychosis.
For regular consumption of large amounts of salt steadily increased the pressure, are developing diseases of the cardiovascular system, can be osteoporosis and cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. An overabundance of salt in the body contributes to the development of swelling, including eyelids. That’s why people who love salty foods, often suffer from eye pressure.
Emergency care and treatment
Emergency treatment of overdose of table salt is given at several stages:
- Give victim plenty of water and cause an artificial vomiting by pressure on the root of the tongue.
- Then again washed stomach, but with the addition of a solution of potassium permanganate.
- Human poisoning is put to bed, the pillow should be elevated, covered.
- Give a viscous food and drink – porridge, gruel, mashed potatoes, mashed bananas, jelly. You can give rich milk, butter or a little fat;
- If signs of psychosis or other changes that indicate damage to the nervous system, call for an ambulance.
For several days after poisoning table salt is not salt affected food or remove from the diet of a variety of pickles.
Treatment Protocol in the hospital
If the salt toxicity is severe and the person hospitalitynet, then treat in a hospital:
- The patient is provided with good drinking regime.
- In large quantities give milk and mucous decoctions, which inhibit the absorption of NaCl and contribute to the rapid removal of substances.
- Intravenous administration of a 10% solution of calcium chloride and glucose.
- Subcutaneously administered calcium gluconate.
Neurological disorders, symptomatic treatment is prescribed, aimed at restoring the nerve cells.
Effects after NaCl poisoning
Mild poisoning usually goes away completely after a few days. The victim well enough to unsolder and do not give salty foods, excess of salt is quickly excreted by the kidneys.
In severe intoxication long the disruption to the functioning of the heart, kidneys and nervous system. People some time will complain of pain and burning in the digestive organs.
If the victim after exposure to NaCl observed persistent mental disorders, it is necessary to consult a specialist!
Death from an overabundance of salt
It turns out that even salt can cause severe poisoning, which if untreated will lead to death. But for humans, this is unlikely, because for this kind of intoxication you need to eat a large amount of this substance.
Much salt, which can lead to death, is only 3 grams per kilogram of body weight. A person weighing 70 kg, one time is enough to eat about 200 grams of salt to obtain a lethal poisoning.
Prevention of poisoning with salt
Each person has individual taste, so some people dine no salt shakers on the table, and the other all the dishes liberally add salt. To prevent salt poisoning in humans and animals is required to abide by the simple rules listed below:
- Foods not much salt, if you like more salty food, he will dosolit their portion.
- In the canning of vegetables to follow the exact recipe and don’t pour an excessive amount of salt.
- To control the content of NaCl in the feed of farm animals, especially among the young.
Cooking salt can be partially replaced by sea, the taste of the same, but the amount of sodium chloride is much less.
Salt gives the dish a unique taste. Without it, it is hard to imagine the life of a man, and many animals need it. This chemical allows you to cook, and also helps to normalize many processes in the body. However, to avoid unpleasant consequences, should not be abused salt.