Salmonellosis: symptoms and treatment in adults
A dangerous infection salmonellosis: symptoms and treatment in adults
There are a lot of various infections of intestinal origin, leading to serious consequences, causing the development of various diseases. Among them is quite a dangerous infectious disease – salmonellosis.
Sources of infection: how to avoid infection
Called salmonellosis bacteria of the genus Salmonella, is able to easily enter the body and settle there, does not manifesting itself. The person becomes a carrier of infection, unaware of the fact that the body begins the process of reproduction of bacteria. This salmonellosis symptoms in adults can manifest itself in different ways.
The disease is transmitted from carrier of Salmonella when using common household items: towel, tableware, bedding. It is therefore important to observe good personal hygiene.
A sick person is dangerous to others throughout the period of the disease. A refresher, it can still be a carrier and to isolate Salmonella. But it’s not chronic salmonellosis. The disease is always acute and in chronic form wrong.
The selection of bacteria is divided into types:
- Sharp, can last up to 3 months. The person feels healthy, but when testing found bacteria.
- Chronic: the bacteria stand out more than 3 months.
- Transient when, after the recovery tests for Salmonella positive, and after a certain period of time become negative.
The most rapid spread of Salmonella in the summer, so the outbreaks have for this period. She gets into the organism with food, almost without changing their taste. To detect its presence is possible only in laboratory studies.
The main sources of infection are:
- A sick person or the one who suffered the disease remains a carrier of the disease.
- The eggs of birds.
- The milk and butter.
- Meat of animals, fish.
- The unboiled water.
- Poorly washed vegetables or fruits.
- Sick or infected animals cared for.
- Stale or poor quality food.
There are examples of mass development of the disease when used in confectionery products. This happens when the dough add the eggs contaminated with the bacterium.
If the food is prepared correctly, in compliance with all of the rules and processes of heat treatment, the bacteria die and become safe for humans.
The mechanism of entry of bacteria into the body
The route of entry of Salmonella into the body difficult: first it food passes into the stomach. Here a barrier to further movement may be gastric juice: the bacterium in the acidic environment dies.
Then a disease-causing microorganism passes through the small intestine. Some of the bacteria are killed here, highlighting endotoxin (one of the toxins that results from the death of the bacteria). The signal that the progression of the disease and the appearance of its first symptoms: temperature, fever, diarrhoea.
The remaining germs are taking over the cells of the intestine, and then the macrophages are special cells that destroy «infectious agents». But inside the macrophages they don’t just continue to live, they are able to multiply.
Inside the macrophages, the bloodstream, they spread throughout the body, lingering in the lymph nodes, spleen and various organs. Part of them continues to multiply. The other part dies, releasing into the blood the toxin. The disease is gaining momentum.
Under the protection of the immunity of the bacteria dies, the rest continue to reproduce, creating new foci of inflammation. In such cases, developing the most rare forms of salmonellosis: typhoid or septic.
Bacteria of the Salmonella spreads toxic substances:
- enterotoxins: cause a violation of the intestine, where they begin to rapidly enter the water and salt;
- the cytotoxins: disrupt the synthesis of proteins and destroys membranes of cells;
- endotoxins: are formed in case of death of the bacteria that cause bad well being.
Dangerous effects on the body of each of these toxins, and together they provoke the development of complicated course of the disease.
How does the disease: symptoms of salmonellosis
The first symptoms become visible a few hours after penetration of bacteria into the body. The incubation period is short and ranges from 8 hours to 3 days. May occur a little later. Three days later starts disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, which manifests itself in the form of:
- pain in the abdomen;
- nausea and vomiting, which continue up to 4 days;
- prolonged diarrhea in which the stool may be greenish or frothy, mixed with blood clots.
With the further development of the signs of salmonellosis in an adult following:
- chills, headache;
- has been in a state of weakness and breaking of bones;
- lost appetite.
Diarrhea and vomiting is dehydration. The consequences can be very sad, if in the beginning not to take simple measures: drink plenty of fluids (tea, juice, compote) and eat vegetable soup.
Treatment should be started immediately. Child or a sick adult, it is desirable to bring to the clinic, where he will make the diagnosis and prescribe a comprehensive treatment. Pills salmonellosis prescribed by a doctor, to determine the exact dosage. Home, waiting for the doctor, the sick placed in a separate room and allowed to drink plenty of fluids.
Various forms of salmonellosis
Forms of salmonellosis occur in different ways.
The most common. To develop the disease starts after a few hours and lasts up to 2 days after infection. The temperature increase observed, of a person sick, vomits, appears loose stools with blood. There is a constant desire to go to the toilet.
Possible weakness and headaches. When severe damage occurs the Central nervous system (convulsions, delirium, loss of consciousness). Sometimes the disease manifests itself in the form of low-pressure and palpitations.
Observed rarely. The course of the disease in the first two days it sounds like gastroenteritis. Then increased toxicity (signs of toxicity), the person experiences fever during the month. Markedly enlarged liver and spleen. Sometimes the rash appears as a pink stain, not very pronounced.
Not very common. The disease is not so painful. Toxicity almost not expressed, no diarrhea. The disease manifests itself in the form of vomiting and abdominal pain. The level of dehydration and intoxication depends on how hard will be affected.
A septic form
The heaviest of all, but appears less. The probability of a lethal outcome. Starts with fever and sweating, chills, temperature fluctuations. Formed purulent foci in the musculoskeletal system and other parts of the body.
Symptoms of salmonellosis in an adult is diagnosed with difficulty. The final diagnosis can only be made on the results of laboratory testing of stool, blood, vomit.
Typhoid and septic forms can only be cured in the hospital. When gastrointestinal form of treatment can be performed at home if the disease is not very hard. With a calm course of disease possible treatment salmonellosis at home.
What category of people most affected by this disease
- Small children up to 5 years.
- People of old age.
- Patients who were operated on, removing the spleen or stomach.
- In the case of reduced immunity.
- Farm workers and poultry farms.
- Lovers to eat raw foods or eggs.
- Travel lovers who defy the rules of personal hygiene.
Treatment in a hospital
In the case where the symptoms are manifested not so clearly, you should seek the assistance of a therapist or infectious disease. If the disease develops quickly and has severe symptoms, it is necessary to call the ambulance. Advanced forms of salmonellosis is difficult to treat, this situation can lead to death.
Treatment of salmonellosis is usually carried out in the infectious Department of the hospital under the supervision of a doctor in compliance with all medical recommendations, starting with diet and ending with medication. Treatment regimen (it depends on how severe is the disease) thinks the doctor.
Hospitalization takes place during heavy or prolonged course of the disease, in the case of complex epidemiological situation, and in the case of severe intoxication and dehydration.
Begin treatment with gastric lavage, the appointment of enemas and sorbents, capable to deduce decay products from the body (activated carbon, etc.). The patient shows a bed rest.
Further therapy is conducted in the following sequence:
- Replenishes the loss of body fluids (vomiting and diarrhea), you need the fractional and frequent drinking and intake of salt solutions: glukosolan, regidrona, orality.
- The main cure salmonellosis – ampicillin, Biseptol, polymyxin M, chloramphenicol. To stop intoxication can be administered indomethacin.
- Since the digestive system is affected, there shall be enzymatic complexes: Mezim, festal, panzinorm.
- To restore the intestinal flora in the treatment of used drugs probiotics: bifikol, baktisubtil, bifidum and the other as a consequence of salmonellosis can become dysbiosis (lack of beneficial microorganisms in the gut).
- If the disease is mild, then the body can enter a special viruses, the bacteriophages, affecting cells of Salmonella. It is a biological method of treatment.
When gastrointestinal form antibiotics are not assigned. According to statistics, the use of antibiotics in the complex treatment increases toxicity and slow elimination of bacteria from the body.
In the course of the disease in the acute form is assigned a diet number 4 by Pevsner, when a person begins to get better, appoint a diet №13. This diet is gentle and helps the patient to better endure the disease.
|Foods that should be eaten||Products which should be discarded|
The question of how the disease is treated, there is no definite answer. Depending on the severity of the disease and form a treatment duration of approximately 2 weeks, followed by rehabilitation rehabilitation of about another month. Taking into account the recovery period – a month. Vaccine against salmonellosis does not exist.
Features of treatment at home
Treatment salmonellosis at home reduces time to recovery, as many folk remedies have a antibacterial effect. They help to strengthen the body’s defenses, promote recovery of the intestinal microflora. In addition, invaluable help in treatment of vomiting and liquid stool.
The first action that you need to make is to wash out the stomach. Do it while vomiting for the allocation are transparent. From used anti-diarrhoeal drug enteral to stop dehydration.
Helps enema for evacuation of the intestinal contents and use of sorbents: POLYSORB, polifepan, enterosgel, smecta, activated carbon, etc. it is Important to comply with bed rest and the use of gentle products: soups, cereals, liquid and mucous and herbal teas.
For diarrhea caused by intoxication bacteria, it is recommended to use aromatherapy. On the skin in the abdomen apply oil of chamomile, juniper, sandalwood, cypress. All of these oils add 2-3 drops to the oil-based (any vegetable oil).
If a person experiences weakness, you can use a diffuser, adding oils of lavender, lemon, myrrh, thyme, sage and other herbs. There are recipes of home remedies that eliminate individual symptoms of the disease.
Recipe No. 1
Increases immune protection, reduces the rate of reproduction of bacteria Royal jelly (1-2 g per 100 g of honey). Take under the tongue on an empty stomach 1 tsp.
Tool No. 2
Kills bacteria alcohol tincture of the bark of the Amur cork tree (1:5). The technique is commonly designed for 3-4 times a day. The dosage will be determined by the doctor. You can use the bark powder with food or liquid.
Help No. 3
A decoction of calamus helps with General intoxication. Its roots – a real tonic for the digestive system. Tea made from calamus root is prepared as follows:
- Roots soaked in cool water.
- Ground and 1st. L. added to a glass of water and left overnight.
- In the morning, heat in a water bath. Heat moderately, because too much heat destroys the beneficial properties of plants.
- Take a SIP of drinking, after meals and before going to sleep, it turns out 5-6 receptions in day.
Drink number 4
For pain syndrome and bacterial effect you can drink tea, consisting of 2 tsp. chamomile flowers, 1 tsp of rosemary 1 tsp of sage per 200 ml of boiling water. Drink cool and drink.
Blend # 5
St. John’s wort and yarrow in equal doses relieve prolonged diarrhea. Prepare it as follows: take 1 tbsp of mixture on 200 ml of boiling water, placed in a water bath for 15 minutes, strain. Drink 50-100 grams on an empty stomach. After 30 minutes, drink 200 ml of kefir.
Treatment of folk remedies used not separately but in combination therapy, together with drugs.
Possible consequences from salmonellosis
The main serious consequence of the disease is dehydration, which often occurs in babies. The possible consequences if the disease was hard and long, if the forms are consistent with hipopotamo and septic varieties. The following possible complications:
- heart failure;
- infectious-toxic shock;
- brain edema;
If the disease was even in mild form, a person needs time to recover. In this disease changes of water-salt metabolism, absorption of nutrients, absorption of vitamins and minerals, there is a weakening of the immune system.
Prevention is about proper food preparation and heat treatment:
- Thoroughly clean and rinse the vegetables, fruits, meat and offal, which are cooked.
- Do not buy products that have expired shelf life.
- Do not leave the product in a warm place, be sure to put them in the fridge.
- When washing dishes and utensils, carefully rinse them with cool water.
- For processing of vegetables and meat should be a separate knife.
- Don’t forget to wash your hands after going outside, after using the toilet, before meals.
Do not buy ready-made products on the street, in open stalls, eating places which do not inspire confidence. Products that sell in bulk, salads with mayonnaise, cakes with cream can be a source of Salmonella.
The reviews of those who had been ill with salmonellosis
Marina, 40: «Sick myself and the child I was sick. The baby healed quickly and I started to have complications. The disease and its consequences seriously affected»
Natalia, 35 years: «I Ate the cream puff, and began my torment. Sick hard and long. The most serious consequence of dysbiosis. Still stomach aches, though I have one year. Now for the cream cakes I can’t watch».
Oleg, 42 years: «I Experienced all the «charms» salmonellosis: fever, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting. Was treated at the hospital. Most importantly, implement all recommendations of the doctor, and you can not get out. I was recovering slowly and painfully. The immune system is still «lame».
Conclusion from the foregoing:
- The incubation period is short, so when similar symptoms to seek help in a hospital.
- The sooner you start treatment, the more likely to be a complication.
- The worst – intoxication, diarrhea and dehydration. You need to take action, to use drugs to alleviate the situation.
- Important diet and abundant and frequent drinking.
- In compliance with prevention measures, you can avoid Contracting the dangerous disease.
Timely diagnosis and proper treatment is the key to successful recovery. The rule isn’t new, but do we always follow him?