The antidote: what it is and what it is used
What is the antidote
Neutralization of many types of poison is performed through the use of an antidote. The antidote is a special drug mixture or single substance that reduces the effects of toxins on the body. The antidotes include funds that decontaminate toxic components by physical and chemical actions on them. This can be antagonists with different backgrounds and preparations that remove toxins by acting on enzymes or receptors that are in the body.
Choose an antidote, depending on the type of toxin and the extent of its influence on the human body. Application efficiency is dependent on correct administration, and the timeliness of providing help to people. Typically, each toxic product has its own antidote, which is used for poisoning.
Characteristic of a substance
The antidote is a special tool for binding and neutralization of toxic substances that have entered the body, in other words is the antidote. The antidote it is used for loosening or complete neutralization of toxic substances and minimize the consequences that poisoning can result.
The antidote is not always drugs. This can be the usual foods. So, honey, milk and sugar are considered to be universal antidotes of natural origin and are often used in case of poisoning.
Varieties of antidotes
Classification of antidotes is carried out in a number of important criteria, according to the specifics of their use. They are divided into groups, according to the teachings of toxicologist S. N. Golikova. He shared principal antidotes:
- Local effects – are on the toxic substance chemical or physical method, neutralization takes place by adsorption.
- Resorptive effects of toxins neytralizuya by the reaction between the particles and antidote of poisonous toxin that circulates in the bloodstream.
- Competitive impact – help to neutralize and bind toxins in a safe components, due to the similarity of the antidote with some enzymes, receptors and individual cellular elements.
- Opposite antagonists quickly eliminate the effects of lead poisoning and the organism as the physiological norm.
- Immunological – specific vaccine or serum, which are used to neutralize poisons.
Most of these antidotes can be used only on prescription after a thorough examination of the patient. In exceptional cases, such substances can greatly harm your health.
In some cases, prescribe antidotes
Antidotes used for any type of poisoning, which disrupt the normal functioning of organs or systems in the body. Their primary task concludes in the weakening of toxic substances and reduce its action on biologically active processes that occur in the body. At the same time they inhibit the development of various functional disorders that are sure to occur as a result of intoxication.
To identify poisons and antidotes to them – this is a critical moment in the process of providing first aid to the victim. Therefore, you should know the characteristics of all the possible antidotes and their applications.
Antidote in case of poisoning with methyl or ethyl alcohol
Methanol is widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries, as well as for manufacture of paint tools and as additives to various fuels. Death can occur if the person inside will take from 20 to 100 ml of methanol. It all depends on the degree of fullness of the stomach, General health and individual sensitivity.
Methanol is absorbed through the digestive system, although it is possible absorption through the skin. A small amount of alcohol excreted by the kidneys and lungs, but a large part of the substance is decomposed in the liver into formic acid and formaldehyde, these substances are intoxicating and on the body. This affects many organs especially the Central nervous system, violations of important oxidation processes in the eyes, which often comes complete blindness.
Ethyl alcohol is used in the pharmaceutical industry and for the production of alcoholic beverages. Penetrating into the body, it decomposes in the same way as technical methyl alcohol, but binding is faster about 7 times, due to this, ethanol is an effective antidote to methanol.
It must be remembered that alcohol poisoning most often occurs when excessive consumption of alcohol, and antidotes to alcohol no.
As a first aid in case of poisoning by alcoholic drinks you can use these tools:
- adsorbents, and will fit even the classic activated carbon in a standard dosage;
- disulfiram – used to relieve intoxication after alcohol;
- esperal – stops the breakdown of toxic substances;
- the cyanamide – prevents the breakdown of ethanol.
If a person is poisoned with methyl or ethyl alcohol, then call an ambulance immediately. Procrastination can cost not only health, but life!
Antidote in case of poisoning by atropine
Atropine is a plant alkaloid, which is toxic to many plants, especially in species of Solanaceae. Fatal dose of atropine for adults is considered to be 0.1 gram of active substance, and for the child enough only 0.01 grams, which is equal to 40 berries of belladonna ordinary.
The first symptoms of poisoning are visible after 15 minutes. There is a dryness of mucous membranes, impaired vision, paralysis of intestines and bladder. First noticeable irritability. Then starts hallucinating, and the person loses consciousness.
As a first aid to the victim to wash out the stomach, and then injected the antidote. The antidote to atropine are the following substances:
- The neostigmine under the skin type 1 ml of 0.05% solution. If necessary, repeat the manipulation at a later time.
- Morphine is a substance shown to be administered subcutaneously only in the acute phase of excitation. In the collapse and loss of consciousness it can not be used.
Antidote therapy of poisonings of this type is the most effective and reliable way to save the victim’s life and health.
Antidote in case of poisoning with adrenaline
Adrenaline is a hormone that is mainly produced by the adrenal glands. He is responsible for the occurrence of stress in humans. This substance is always present in the body in certain doses, but if a person has a stressful situation, the level is significantly increased.
If there was a very large release of adrenaline in the blood, then there are changes in the body. Disrupted the heart and vascular system, the pupils dilate and relax the muscles of the intestine. Severe stress can lead to heart failure, chronic kidney disease and Central nervous system. Man in a state of shock administered the antidote of epinephrine – phentolamine, it helps to normalize blood pressure and heart rate.
An antidote in intoxication with organophosphorus compounds
Chemicals phosphorus content used in the national economy to combat different pests. These substances penetrate into the body by inhalation of toxic fumes, much less through the skin. In case of poisoning by organophosphorus compounds such changes occur in the body:
- Observed abnormal sweating.
- Pupils are narrowed.
- Disturbed heart rhythm.
- Breathing is difficult.
Through time, developing anxiety, which then gradually goes into a coma. The antidote to phosphorus is considered a means of atropine, administered intravenously in the amount of 1-2 grams. If intravenous injection is difficult, it is possible to inject the antidote SC. Manipulation performed every 15-20 minutes, as long as the patient’s condition is fully normalized.
The antidote for poisoning by carbon monoxide
Intoxication with carbon monoxide may occur during production, in violation of the technology, as well as homes with malfunctioning furnaces on solid fuel. In addition, the cause of poisoning can become a fire.
Penetrating into the human body, quickly binds with hemoglobin, so there are persistent irregularities in the organs and systems. Due to this a person experiences severe state weakness, dizziness, humming in the ears and confusion. To assist the person is removed to fresh air and freed from tight clothing. The antidote to carbon monoxide gas is azizol. It inhibits the binding of toxins with the blood cells and partially restores the oxygen delivery than prevents the development of hypoxia. For the treatment of 6% solution are administered intravenously in a volume of 1 ml, according to the testimony, the procedure was repeated after 5 hours.
Severe intoxication with carbon monoxide arise when burning plastic and other synthetic materials that emit, in addition to carbon monoxide, various toxins. In this poisoning shows the urgent hospitalization.
Antidote in case of intoxication with arsenic
Arsenic poisoning is possible with the use of drugs to combat rodents. The consumption of arsenic in food is most often the result of negligence. This chemical substance acts on a cellular level so the body violated the basic biochemical processes.
First irritated intestines and lungs and a nervous system. The person may experience headache, nausea and vomiting. Disrupted the heart and there is renal failure, in the end it leads to death. Antidotes to arsenic are:
- The dimercaprol isn – adult patients administered 5% solution, per 1 ml per 10 kg of body weight.
- Unitiol – 5-10 ml, depending on body mass, intravenously, intramuscularly, or droplets.
- D-penicillamine is used for permanent intoxication, 1 gram up to 4 times a day.
It should be remembered that the universal antidote has not yet been invented, so the doctor definitely misleading, with some chemical substance was the interaction and dose. This allows you to quickly start the right treatment.
The antidote for poisoning by mercury
Mercury vapor is quite toxic, penetrating into the body, they contribute to the destruction of the cells. Cases of intoxication are quite common, because mercury is used in some household appliances.
The first signs of poisoning occur after only half an hour. The victim complains of weakness, shortness of breath, excessive salivation and a peculiar metallic taste in the mouth. After some time develops severe pain in the abdomen, diarrhea with mucus and shortness of breath, can up to critical point temperature to rise. The antidotes of mercury include these substances:
- Unitiol – adult patients administered 5-10 ml of the drug, depending on the severity of the condition and body weight. Manipulation you can perform up to 4 times a day until the normalization of condition;
- Magnesium sulfate.
- The protein of fresh raw eggs.
- Powder activated carbon.
- Whole milk.
If the mercury fell on the exposed areas of the skin, they thoroughly washed a large volume of running water with soap.
What antidotes have been used to assist
Toxicologists developed a summary table of antidotes where indicated poisons and antidotes to them, as well as symptoms of intoxication. In cases of poisoning, the doctors compare the symptoms that are observed in humans, with the data table and select the correct treatment.
The basic antidotes, which are more often used in the treatment of poisoning, are as follows:
- Glucose – used in complex therapy and as an independent drug intoxication. Inject this drug intravenously or taken orally.
- Unitiol – a substance can be called a universal antidote, which has wide therapeutic effect. It is effective against heavy metals, fluorine-containing substances and certain medications.
- Vitamin B6 is shown in intoxications, which are caused by the medication.
- Atropine Sulfate – used in the role of antagonist to many known poisons.
In the role of antidotes is often used not only pharmaceuticals, but also familiar foods – eggs, milk, honey, coffee and ascorbic acid. All these products can be used until the arrival of the ambulance, they will not bring harm to health.