The effect of radiation on living organisms and nature
What is radiation and how dangerous she is
Disaster! The one coming environmental disaster. And the main reason to stop her inevitable humanity and its daily activities.
For example, the explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused irreparable damage to the whole ecosystem, located in the area of 200 000 square kilometers. The percentage of the healthy population among those living in close proximity to each year is falling. The city of Pripyat after many years is still considered an exclusion zone.
Chernobyl was a sad experience of mankind, but a demonstration lesson on «Impact of radioactive substances on living organisms» was not understood and man-made radiation continues to affect the person.
What is radiation
Radiation is a phenomenon that occurs in radioactive elements, nuclear reactors, explosions. She detrimental impact on the health and functioning of all living organisms, including humans.
Unlike radiation from radioactivity that exists only until the until will be absorbed by any substance. In turn, the second is present for a long time.
The harm coming from this phenomenon:
- In small doses, lead to cancer.
- Violate the healthy genetics.
- Destroys the cells of the tissue.
- Leads to various diseases.
- Contamination of land, sea and air.
Radiation biology watching and exploring ways and the impact of radiation on different biological objects.
The main thing to remember – it all depends on the dose of infection. It determines the probability of death or other possible caused harm to humans, animals or the environment.
Types of radiation
The radiation was before the advent of mankind and increased the number with its appearance. Therefore subdivided into two main types – radiation natural and man-made. To natural we include the radionuclides that fall from space, living in the earth’s crust, and as a result the life of nature itself. To human usually referred to those that are produced in the result of human activity.
All types of radiation, in turn, presented in the form of alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Alpha and beta particles are dangerous if ingested. Cesium and cobalt, representing gamma radiation, cause an overdose of external irradiation.
Most irradiation affects the lungs, intestines. The least vulnerable skin, bone and bone marrow.
How would a person tried, a large part of the radiation of the living world of the planet receives from natural sources. These include:
- external exposure from radionuclides of terrestrial origin;
- internal irradiation from radionuclides of terrestrial origin;
Cosmogenic come to us as a result of different processes occurring in the Universe. At high solar activity, the flares of stars – they come to us. In the depths of the bowels of the earth there is also the radiation source. No significant damage shall not be, though, and gets everywhere – in air, water, everything is alive. External damage causing elements such as uranium and thorium. Inner action – when radiation enters through inhalation, food or drink. And if the external damage may be eliminated by removing particles from the surface of the living body, the internal damage to fix is much harder and sometimes even impossible.
In areas of high concentration of radon, the construction of houses and non-residential buildings is prohibited.
- Natural. The natural minerals.
- Artificial. Artificial result of nuclear reactions.
Every year grows the number of those, and other technological ways of increase of radiation. Because of accidental spills, nuclear explosions, and the search for new oil and gas fields.
And if the natural activity we can’t stop, then the above methods to reduce our forces.
Examples of artificial sources of radiation:
- nuclear power plant;
- military equipment;
- working of nuclear reactors;
- places of nuclear tests;
- area of leakage of nuclear fuel;
- a medical technician.
When using natural gas increases the overall radiation background.
Dosage. The effect of radiation on living organisms
As if we are not informed and not convinced that radiation is harmless and small doses are not dangerous to all living things – some risks still exist. Take a look at how the effects of radiation on living organisms dangerous what is the dosage which will be enough and the consequences for the organism.
Most are exposed children, even the fetus in the womb.
25 x-rays and less danger is not present. Example – x-ray irradiation, as a rule, the dosage of which is so small that after drinking 1 glass of milk or grape juice, you will save yourself from the exposure of such a degree.
Dose 50 x – ray if received once, it temporarily reduced the number of lymphocytes; if this figure is accumulated over the whole of human life, it is a significant threat does not carry.
- 50 – 100 – nausea and vomiting, gag reflex, on the background of a General decline in the number of lymphocytes;
- 100-150 is rarely fatal, more a feeling of «the alcohol hangover»; in case of brief exposure results in 0,5% of cases of oncological diseases;
- 200-250 x-rays received in a short period of time, leads to the development and progression of radiation sickness, the probability of death is high;
- 300-350 – half of the cases of poisoning leads to death in the next 30 days;
- 500-600 – leads to death in almost every case, occurs in the first 2 weeks;
- 700 — 1000 – death almost immediately, and in each of the cases.
If we talk about the overall acceptable and «painless» for the entire body dosage, it is not more than 5 rad per year.
The nature conservancy
If humanity is clear, then I would like to convey how much and what is the impact of radiation on nature?
Many scientists closely involved in the protection of nature and protect the world from environmental disaster. One way is to fence the natural world from man-made radiation from nuclear explosions, combustion and storage of nuclear waste, etc.
- Pollution of the soil.
- Such areas require long and expensive rehabilitation for future use.
- Although deciduous species are more adapted and resistant to the increase in background radiation, at high numbers and they die.
- Animals and insects.
The special effects of radiation on animals, because they are the most innocent and vulnerable in comparison with the more intelligent inhabitants of the planet.
After the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant near reduced the number of earthworms, although years later, recovered again at the expense of those who were resistant to ionizing radiation.
Things contaminated in the home
In addition to the items that come from infected places, such as Chernobyl or cars from Japan following the accident at Fukushima – have small household items that are dangerous.
- Antiques that have survived the great Patriotic war or the First world.
- After the tragedy in Japan, the Chinese products can have an increased radiation background.
- Cars imported from Japan after the Fukushima accident, other products.
- Crystal, granite, granite stones and all products made from natural materials.
- Some types of concrete or brick, depending on the location, extraction of alumina.
- Vintage wrist watch with hands coated with radium and phosphor.
- Ceramic or pottery, covered with yellow or orange uranium glaze (now not made).
- Glow in the dark toys and devices.
- The Brazil nut.
- Luminous door signs showing entrance and exit.
- Bentonite clay contained in the cat litter.
- The glossy pages.
It turns out that, in addition to annual x-irradiation in clinics and hospitals, we get an extra dose of radiation from objects that surround us in everyday life. Therefore, if there is the slightest possibility to reduce the dosage, the adhering to simple rules of food storage, refusing food is contaminated and not buying cars with high radiation — be sure to do it.
Today it is possible to independently measure the radiation levels in your home, in the tub, to check the extent of damages in the purchase of building materials. For this purpose, the dosimeter. The price starts from 2500 rubles for household appliances reaching amount 10 times higher for professional.
Comparing radiation in different rooms and on different floor
The allowable rate of background radiation is 50 microroentgens per hour or 0.3 cubic/hour.
If you look at the radiation levels at school in different rooms or at home, it will be something like this:
- The ICT room is between 13 and 16 µr/h.
- Dining room – 10 to 14 µr/h.
- Gym – 13 to 15 µr/h.
- School yard — MKR/h.
The background radiation in homes and buildings:
- Prefabricated house – 0,017 Mr/h.
- Brick house – 0,016 µr/h.
- Non-residential premises, and public – 0,017 Mr/h.
We conclude the level of radiation is negligible and completely harmless. Although, for example, at Fukushima the level of radiation today is 530 sieverts per hour, which is hundreds of times higher than normal. In Khabarovsk in 2011, during the Fukushima accident, the background was increased and amounted to 27 Mr/HR, and in Vladivostok and less. In Moscow via online monitoring can detect today 0,12 MZ/hour, which is a little higher than normal. Accordingly, taking into account all the factors which the person receives a radiation, we can say that it comes from everywhere, from nature and from man-made causes. To avoid this impossible!
In the United States has developed a special gel that can be sprayed on any surface and absorb it with radionuclides.
It turns out that radiation as a phenomenon is present for many years, and it is inevitable. Because we have no right to destroy one of the sources of exposure, the nature. The question we need to ask ourselves how humankind radiation affects the world and how it contributes to the background radiation:
- Development and testing of nuclear weapons.
- The construction of nuclear power stations.
- The production of gas, oil, other minerals.
- Burning different kind of waste.
In addition to air pollution is irrigation of rivers, lakes, consequently, the death of an entire ecosystem.
To be forced to think about environmental problem, approaching a catastrophic ending, you need to:
- To tighten the legislation.
- Go to the new technology.
- To hold regular conferences and forums in the international key, which will give you the opportunity to find new ways to address that menace.
To avoid a small increase in background radiation, it is necessary to carry out simple activities:
- To ventilate the room.
- To plant trees and shrubs in yards, parks and squares.
- Not to burn garbage and not pollute the city.
- To have a dosimeter to measure the background radiation in the living room.
- To lead a healthy lifestyle.
- Near computers and televisions to grow violets, cacti.
What to do to help the body excrete accumulated or received radioactive substances?
One of the most effective and cheapest ways to exercise. Moreover, the active and exhausting to «seven days of rain». It is through increased sweating go all the charged particles and the elements. The same process happens when you visit the bath or sauna.
The saturation of the body with natural vitamins will reduce the risk of exposure. A strong body is better able to defend themselves.
With the explicit radiation contamination take iodine. For the accumulation of this substance in the body, because in this case the locations for the radioactive isotope will not remain, and it will not be absorbed by your body.
Food that removes radionuclides
Of course, there is no such cocktail, after drinking which, the level of radiation contamination of man will fall immediately, but some products still reduce the dosage:
- Salts of potassium and calcium B-vitamins take the radionuclides. Products – Mac, cheese, sesame seeds, milk, greens, corn, apricots, beets, seaweed, prunes, raisins, spinach, cod, lentils, avocado.
- Green tea helps to eliminate the computer radiation, kvass and natural juices are also beneficial to the body, which was exposed to radiation.
- Onion, green onions, garlic – is able to bring a small dose of radionuclides.
- The pharmacy offers a variety of bioactive supplements – seaweed. Observing the instructions for use can help your body.
- The brine from my grandmother’s tomatoes or cucumbers, stockpiled for the winter. Drink to your health!
We build our own future, and only we decide what it is our children. And what is the background radiation will become the norm in their daily life — depends on what methods of its reduction, we find today, but the effect of radioactive radiation on live organisms is definitely there!