The effects of food and other types of poisoning
Poisoning: symptoms and effects of intoxication
Poisoning is a disorder of the functioning of the human body after ingestion the bloodstream of toxic compounds from the environment. The symptoms of pathology are varied, depend on the type of poison and the ways of its penetration through the skin, mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract. In the absence of medical assistance to develop the consequences of poisoning, which can cause disability and even death of the victim.
Why is there poisoning
It is impossible to predict how it will react to the body of a particular toxic substance. Deadly for many people dose of ethanol does not cause any harm to the citizens with alcohol dependence. Or sweet the fragrance of the flowers of Datura may cause severe intoxication in one person, and another will feel is a slight headache.
Poisoning is extremely dangerous for young children and adolescents. Metabolic processes in their body are more rapid, and the vascular wall are characterized by high permeability. This facilitates the penetration of toxic compounds in all organs and tissues.
Toxicologists klassificeret poisons according to their degree of danger to humans and severe consequences, developing after intoxication:
- stale, expired food products or improper food for newborns and toddlers;
- poisons of plant and animal origin;
- household chemicals: washing powders, bleach, disinfectants;
- oil paints, varnishes, adhesives, solvents;
- herbicides, insecticides, accelerators of growth and maturation, fungicides;
- alcoholic beverages, tobacco products;
- pharmacological drugs.
The most serious human consequences occur after intoxication with caustic alkalis, acids, mercury, chlorine, arsenic, cyanide. Risk of poisoning is in a short period of time from penetration of the poison into the body to stop the heart.
The clinical picture of poisoning
Symptoms of poisoning depend on the hazard class of toxic substances, human health and ways of penetration of endotoxins inside the bloodstream. The most severe effects of intoxication occur by inhalation and ingestion gastrointestinal tract. Death often noted in acute poisoning with alcohol, narcotic substances, arsenic and cyanide.
Food poisoning always occur on the background of disorders of the digestive system. After 2-3 hours the victim nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence and stomach pain.
Consequences and symptoms of each poisoning have their own distinctive features. But there are common signs that indicate the penetration in the human body of poison:
- Hypothermia or sudden increases in temperature, fever, chills.
- A feeling of unpleasant taste in the mouth, increased salivation, belching air.
- Pale skin, dry mucous membranes.
- Urinary disorders, change the color and smell of urine.
- Swelling, burning, rash, itching and redness.
- The decrease in visual acuity, double vision before the eyes, lack of response to light.
- Tremor of upper and lower extremities, convulsions, seizures.
In acute poisoning with large concentrations of toxic substances, and the victim falls into a deep coma. Blood supply of the brain decreases, which causes serious consequences for the organism. In humans is pulmonary edema and cardiac arrest.
Characterization of the effects of intoxication
What species is the poison that caused the poisoning, to identify the sometimes extremely difficult. The victim is unconscious, the relatives are not aware of the events. Therefore when helping doctors focus on symptoms from occurring, are making efforts to address them.
As a rule, establish the type of toxicity possible chronic poisoning. Often the deterioration of health leads to long-term use of pharmacological drugs. After laboratory testing established the substance that caused the poisoning.
For the most severe effects of intoxication include decreased functional activity of the urinary, cardiovascular, digestive and Central nervous system of the human body.
In acute forms of poisoning victims have almost always diagnosed respiratory disorders. Such complications provoke ventilatory failure and aspiration. Develops the effect of «sucking» against the backdrop of a sharp decline in pressure. To dangerous consequences for the human body refers to pulmonary edema not cardiogenic etiology.
Some time after poisoning in adults may form acute respiratory distress syndrome. The disease is characterized by the appearance of extensive edema of the pulmonary parenchyma, blood circulation, reducing the content of molecular oxygen in the bloodstream. Distress syndrome refers to inflammatory pathologies and is often the cause of death.
Only the timely conduct detoxification therapy is able to save man. In children, adolescents and adults after exposure to toxic compounds have an effect in the form of recurring bronchospasm. It may cause the development of asthma or frequent bronchitis off-season.
In case of poisoning with poisons of vegetable or animal origin, heavy metals, drugs appear cardiovascular complications. Effects of intoxication are: bradycardia, tachycardia, hypertension. The pathological condition may disappear completely after recovery or take a chronic form.
Sometimes the victim develops oxygen starvation to brain cells, shifting of the PH of the blood to the acid side. Decreases tone of smooth muscles, which leads to arterial hypotension or renal. Dangerous intoxication include the possibility of intracerebral hemorrhage.
A few hours after ingested toxic compounds in a person may experience seizures. In the medical literature have described cases of preservation of seizures, the victim for several months and even years. This is due to a sustained loss of blood supply to the brain cells.
When the intoxication is diagnosed by a change in level of consciousness, which manifests itself in the form of excitement, visual and auditory hallucinations, depression. Often, after the treatment of poisoning, the victim remains emotionally unstable. Especially dangerous depression, therapy which takes months or years.
Many people have a predisposition to effects of intoxication. For example, a person with low resistance to bacterial or viral infections increases the likelihood of developing respiratory complications.
The consequences of food poisoning are often expressed in the acquisition of the tendency to allergic reactions. Products previously harmless to the body after intoxication cause redness or rashes on the skin. In severe cases, possible angioedema and anaphylactic shock.