The oral rehydration solution at home
Conducting oral rehydration: preparations and method of use
Water in the human body necessary for the normal flow of metabolic processes in cells, formation of body fluids, maintain the desired consistency of the blood, the internal organs. Water helps rid the body of breakdown products, toxic substances. In pathological processes there is a deficiency of liquid. To make up for it, is assigned treatment – oral rehydration. It aims to combat dehydration and replenish salts (electrolytes).
What are the dangers of dehydration for the body, indications for rehydration
Hydration is the correct fluid balance in the body. When it is violated dehydration occurs. Loss of fluid leads to failure of metabolic processes, in severe cases, to stop working of vital internal organs (kidneys, heart, lungs) and death. When loss of water volume from 15 to 20% of the total body mass, there are serious changes in organs and tissues. If a person has lost more than 20% of the fluid, this condition is not compatible with life.
The degree of dehydration is determined by clinical symptoms:
- 1-I severity – mild. Signs: diarrhea 2 to 5 times a day, vomiting is rare. Mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, eyes are wet. The total loss of the liquid relative to body mass does not exceed 5%.
- 2nd severity – medium. Symptoms: develops in the first two days after infection, diarrhoea up to 10 times a day, frequent vomiting. Patients has dry mucous membranes, rapid heartbeat, erratic pulse. The skin becomes dry, wrinkles are smoothed. Increased intracellular pressure.
- 3rd severity – severe dehydration. Develop signs of hypovolemic shock dry skin and mucous membranes, the eyelids closed with difficulty, the eyeballs sink. The skin becomes blue, and then acquires the marble hue, the extremities become cold. The heart rate increases, blood pressure falls, the reaction to external stimuli is absent. Decreased production of urine, then stops the kidney.
The severity of dehydration depends on the General condition of the victim, causing loss of fluid. The risk group also includes children up to 15 years, especially the first 3 years, elderly, debilitated, chronic diseases, pregnant women.
Indications for oral rehydration:
- acute intestinal infection;
- viral diseases causing high toxicity of the body;
- chemical poisoning;
- overdose medications;
- thermal burns 2nd and 3rd degree;
- poisoning poisonous mushrooms, low-quality products.
Receiving rehydration remedies prescribed for moderate dehydration. In the case of large fluid loss in severe forms of dehydration, the development of infectious-toxic or hypovolemic shock administered parenteral rehydration (intravenous solutions).
Solutions for oral rehydration
Means of rehydration are drugs that are produced in the form of tablets or of powder for the preparation of solutions. There are also ready-to-use tools that are available in vials or bottles. These drugs are necessary for the organism salts – magnesium, chlorine, sodium, potassium. In addition to trace elements, the composition of the assets included glucose and extracts of medicinal herbs (chamomile, wheat germ, rice).
Any oral rehydration solution is available in pharmacies and is available without a prescription. The tool quickly replenishes lost fluids in the body.
A brief review of oral rehydration means
Regidron. Quickly restores the acid-alkaline balance. Contains more potassium than sodium, allowing you to avoid hypernatremia. Rehydron is the solution for rehydration for children. It is preferred to appoint paediatricians in acute intestinal infections, heat shocks during a long stay in the sun when sweating. The drug is safe for pregnant women does not affect fetal development.
Hydrovit – powder for kids with strawberry flavor. Administered from birth to replenish water and electrolyte balance when losing fluids during a heat wave, heat stroke, diarrhea. The drug is prescribed for both children and adults.
Gastrolith – a means for oral rehydration, which is available in the form of powder or tablets for solution preparation. Eliminates diarrhea and restores electrolyte balance has astringent effect, prevents the development of acidosis (increased acidity in the body). In the preparation includes chamomile, which relieves inflammation, spastic pain in the stomach, normalizes motility and peristalsis, prevents the development of flatulence. Prescribed from the first days of life.
Orasan – prescribed for diarrhea after each act of defecation. The tool restores the loss of salts and water, improves the processes of absorption in the small intestine, adjusts the acidity of the body. In children, the drug may cause nausea.
Oral – granulated powder, salt mixture. Prescribed for acute diarrhoea, thermal shock, physical exertion of the body. The drug contains potassium, so it is prescribed with caution under reduced daily diuresis, patients with high blood pressure and heart diseases. Receiving orali children must be under the supervision of a physician.
Rosolen – powder for preparation of solution inside. Shown with marked thirst, acidosis, dehydration, intestinal infections, cholera, convulsions, caused by heat stroke. Restores the water-salt balance, eliminate toxins from the body.
Maratonic – granular preparation of solutions. Indications – heavy physical work, exercise, high body temperature, heatstroke.
Tsitraglyukosolan – white powder, odorless. Prescribed for the dehydration of 1-St and 2-nd degree due to infectious diseases during physical exertion. The drug is prescribed from the first days of life. Children take the solution every 15 minutes for 4-6 hours, until the cessation of diarrhea.
If there is no medicines, rehydration therapy at home can be carried out with a solution that you can prepare yourself.
The world health organization recommends a recipe for a oral rehydration solution at home:
- 1 l of boiled water;
- 1 tbsp. of salt;
- 2-3 tablespoons of sugar;
- 1 tsp of baking soda.
General recommendations for use of oral rehydration preparations, contraindications
Any means for oral rehydration before use must be dissolved in water. The exact dosage and proportional to the number of components according to the age of the patient and his condition stated in the instructions for use. What to consider when preparing the solution:
- the amount of water to one sachet or tablet;
- the temperature of the liquid upon dissolution of the powder;
- period and conditions of storage of the prepared solution.
It is impossible to independently added to the solution additional components to improve taste (sugar, honey, jam). It is also not recommended simultaneous reception with other drugs that are taken orally (tablets, syrups, suspensions, capsules).
That the effect occurred as soon as possible, you should drink warm solution, the temperature of which is close to body temperature. So the medication is immediately absorbed into the blood.
The volume of ingestion is determined by the severity of symptoms. If a person experiences thirst, weakness, there is a slight increase in body temperature, you can drink 0,5-0,8 l of a solution within 3-4 hours. If the patient has more serious symptoms of dehydration – rare urination, urine is rich yellow color, dry skin and mucous membranes, a minimum amount of solution should be at least 1.5-2 liters per day (for adults). To determine the amount of funds rehydration therapy in children prescribed by a doctor.
Oral rehydration if dehydration is carried out in two stages. The first 6-8 hours to replenish fluid loss compared to a deficit of total body weight. The second phase is maintenance therapy, where daily volume equals the total needs of the body in the fluid, plus the water lost by vomiting or diarrhea.
Contraindications for oral rehydration:
- extremely heavy the degree of dehydration repeated vomiting and diarrhea, kidney failure, shock, unconsciousness, coma;
- diabetes mellitus of the 1st type (insulin-dependent) because of the content in the glucose solution;
- intestinal obstruction;
- renal dysfunction, chronic and acute kidney failure;
- hypertension severe, hypertensive crisis;
- individual intolerance of the drug components.
Oral rehydration is possible not only in hospital but also at home. Fluids need often in small SIPS, so as not to provoke vomiting. Babies enter the solution through a nasogastric tube (through the nose). If after drinking happened vomiting, re-acceptance of the solution should be no earlier than 10-15 minutes. Preparations for oral rehydration is to drink between meals. Signs of effectiveness of therapy – disappearance of the symptoms of dehydration, stop vomiting and diarrhea.