Toxic substances irritant action
The list of toxic substances of irritating action
It is a mistake to assume that toxic substances irritant action is used solely by the police and military. Many chemical compounds have the ability to affect nerves, provoking lacrimation and itching. In contact with an excess amount of these substances on the skin or mucous membranes develops extensive intoxication. Timely medical intervention will help the victim avoid serious complications.
Distinctive features of substances with irritant
Irritant effect – the ability of chemical compounds to increase the sensitivity of nerve endings. Such fibers are located in all layers of the epidermis by transmission of impulses to the centers of the regulation of all vital systems. Contact with toxic substances is accompanied by local and General reflex reactions that are perceived subjectively. In humans, there is a feeling of sharp pain and a strong burning sensation.
Irritant has a large number of chemical compounds that are used in everyday life and in industrial production. Such toxic agents include:
- Halogens: iodine, fluorine, or chlorine;
- alicyclic ketones;
- caustic alkalis and acid gases or vapours;
- organic compounds containing aldehyde group.
Irritant substances is in direct proportion to the constituent ingredients of the chemical structure of the compounds, the concentration in the surrounding space, the size of the affected area of the skin. Penetration of toxins inside the blood stream promotes not only a sense of burning, but also triggers other mechanisms of toxicity.
Substances irritants contained in the means to protect themselves, do not cause severe intoxication. This condition can only occur if person has an individual intolerance to the components of the mixture.
These compounds are used as chemical warfare agents when it is necessary to neutralize the enemy without causing death. Police use of irritants to disperse unauthorized rallies, for disposal of offenders, when carrying out special operations to combat terrorists. In some countries it is possible to acquire such chemical weapons for use in self-defense.
Toxic compounds, which are used to suppress the enemy, capable of causing the death of a person because of the extremely low concentration. They are used to temporarily incapacitate the live enemy forces.
Despite the support from manufacturers safety irritants toxic action, the situation sometimes gets out of control. For people with severe chronic or systemic diseases intoxication will not be fatal, but can cause exacerbation recurrence or cause severe complications.
Toxic substances klassificeret as follows:
- Lacrimatory. Irritate the eyes, cause incessant tearing, cutting pains.
- The sternites. After a breath occurs for a long period of sneezing and sore throat.
Death sometimes occurs not due to the direct impact of venom on the human body. After use of toxic substances there is panic — people want to get out of the infected area. As a compound irritant causes watery eyes, leave the area sprayed with toxins extremely difficult. Medical workers, who arrived to assist the injured, are also in the affected area.
The pathogenesis of toxic action
The nerve endings of the mucous membrane of the eyes have high sensitivity. After hitting them irritating substances formed numerous inflammatory foci. In such areas creates excessive concentrations of toxic compounds. Occurring reflex reactions are characterized as:
The resulting pulses are applied to the sensitive endings of the trigeminal and vagus nerves. As irritated from practically all the nerve endings, disrupted the upper and lower respiratory tract. Diagnosed a reduction or shortness of breaths, depending on the objectives targeted.
People suffering from lung disorders are at risk for poisoning irritants. In the formation of high concentrations of toxic gases and vapors in the ambient atmosphere, they may develop persistent bronchospasm.
Toxic substances that provoke prolonged sneezing, have a selective effect on sensory nerve endings in the nasopharynx, larynx. Bronchi and bronchioles are involved in the pathological process only when a significant content of toxic compounds in the air. People have a knee-jerk reaction is to sneeze or cough to avoid discomfort. Such toxic substances in everyday life are called cicadellinae.
Difficulties with implementing breathing provoke numerous violations of the regulatory centres and all systems functioning. Within the bloodstream accumulate biologically active substances, tissue lack of molecular oxygen, hypoxia. Emerging heart pain localized behind the breastbone. Irritants that caused extensive toxicity are called sternites.
The high selectivity of toxic substances is not absolute: when the concentration of the person may experience a set of symptoms. Polyvalent action is expressed by the combination of the clinical picture of irritant properties of lacrimation and sternites. Toxic substances inhibit the action of the Central nervous system, destroying oxidase required for its functional activity.
Symptoms of poisoning
Irritating toxic substances do not have a latent period of formation of pathological process. Their negative effect on the human body manifests itself directly in the moment when contact occurs with the skin or mucous membranes:
- In the nasal cavity there is a feeling of burning in the eyes and cutting pain.
- The resulting tearing is so abundant that it is impossible to see the surrounding objects.
- The cough begins with a little sore throat, then continues without stopping.
- In the heart and chest felt stiff, painful spasms, the feeling of lack of air when trying to take another breath.
- From the nasal cavity is copious fluid, and from the mouth – saliva.
- Disrupted gastrointestinal tract: vomiting, nausea, bloating, sour belching and heartburn.
- Sneezing non-stop takes;
- Sometimes develops slight hyperthermia, fever, chills.
Immediately have the victim having excruciating painful spasms of the head, localized at different sites. People who failed to wear a respirator or a gas mask, long stationed in the affected area of toxic substances, developing emotional instability. Anxiety, panic, depression, nervous excitement and utter fear is replaced by apathy and depression.
Experts who have studied the behavior of people in the crackdown, noticed a certain peculiarity. The man who had to wear a gas mask, had experienced subjective feeling of shortness of breath, pain in the eyes and pain behind the breastbone.
Depending on the state of health of victims experiencing different duration of the arisen symptoms. After leaving the affected area discomfort persists for about half an hour, and then the intensity gradually decreases. But people with chronic diseases or poor immune system difficulty breathing may be diagnosed at several weeks.
With a long presence on the infected area or under the action of high concentrations of irritating substance develop severe degree of intoxication. This means that the toxic compound inside the blood stream, were adsorbed by the cells and tissues of internal organs. Enterotoxins bound red blood cells, which in this state is not able to deliver oxygen to the brain. Experience the following violations:
- reduced ability of the kidneys to filter the blood and excrete urine, the toxins and products of metabolism;
- decrease muscle, tactile and tendon reflexes;
- observed tremor of the upper and lower extremities, alternating with convulsions;
- developing kidney and hypertension, then hypotension occurs;
- quickens the pulse, heart rate.
The danger of heavy defeat irritants is distracting action. People are so focused on the pain, not responding to external stimuli, exposing themselves to danger if you encounter a threatening situation.
In contact with the skin of drops of the toxic substance occurs when damage to even the deepest layers of the epidermis. Develops extensive swelling, redness, chemical burns. After some time blisters with liquid.
First aid for poisoning
Regardless, where there was intoxication by substances with toxic and irritating properties, you should immediately call an ambulance. Doctors need to warn them about the threatening danger in order to be able to take preventive measures. After that you need to help the victims. For a start all people must leave the affected area. If possible, you should get rid of chemicals contaminated clothing and shoes.
Even if the irritant was sprayed in the form of gas, should be washed mucous membranes and the skin of the victim water with baking soda. By the drippings of toxic fluid the affected areas need to treat neutral disinfectant.
For lower eyelid it is necessary to lay a small amount of eye ointment containing the antimicrobial ingredients. If a person has had nausea, experts recommend to induce vomiting. To do this:
- Three litres of warm water to dissolve two tablespoons of salt or potassium permanganate (a few grams) to form a weak pink color.
- You can help the victim, pushing the handle of his spoon on the tongue.
- You should induce vomiting to discharge from the stomach of clean water without admixture of undigested food.
- Well binds toxic substances strong sweet tea.
- After cleansing the stomach, you must give the person adsorbents or sorbents.
- To prevent dehydration you can use the drugs with salts and glucose.
- With excruciating headaches requires reception of antispasmodic drugs.
When moderate and severe intoxication of the victim must be hospitalized for intensive course of detoxification therapy. Qualified medical assistance is the implementation of etiotropic and symptomatic treatment. Subsequently, people affected by the action of irritants need long-term rehabilitation. Doctors recommend compliance with sparing diet and optimal drinking regime, long walks in the fresh air. To increase the body’s resistance to endotoxins by using Immunostimulants, immunomodulators and vitamin complexes with trace elements.