Toxic substances obscheyadovitym actions and their antidotes
Obscheyadovitym toxic substances and their effects
Toxic substances obscheyadovitym action is a chemicals entering the body through the digestive system, lungs or skin, negatively affect all organs and systems, metabolic and biochemical processes, inhibit the processes of oxygen transport and tissue respiration. At the same time they do not cause typical symptoms of poisoning and does not affect the body, through which penetrated the body. This article describes obscheyadovitym substances, main causes of poisoning them, the symptoms, possible consequences and rules of first aid, components of treatment.
What substances are obscheyadovitym as they may be poisonous
Obscheyadovitym toxic substances are very dangerous for man and his life. These include the chemicals listed below.
- Hydrocyanic acid is a colourless liquid which boils at a temperature of 26 degrees, has a distinctive almond flavor. In an open environment, it quickly evaporates into the air. Poisoning most commonly occurs through the respiratory tract. Once in the human body, it disrupts the ability of tissues to utilize oxygen, thereby developing acute hypoxia.
- CYANOGEN chloride – the substance by the action similar to hydrocyanic acid.
Hydrocyanic acid and CYANOGEN chloride was previously used as chemical weapons. These substances killed people in gas chambers in concentration camps. Nowadays they are widely used in different industries. Poison them in the following situations:
- when working with gold and silver. Hydrocyanic acid used in the extraction of these metals from ores;
- during agricultural work. These potent chemicals can be used as poisons against pests (insects, rodents);
- when painting and polishing of certain tissues and plastic;
- while industrial accidents in factories which used these poisonous toxic substances;
- by eating the seed kernels of cherries, cherries, plums, peaches, nectarines. They are composed of hydrocyanic acid.
Please note that when working with toxic substances obscheyadovitym action, you must use a mask and to comply with official safety instructions. Almost all the toxicity in these substances are caused by careless and negligent handling of them.
Mechanism of action
Once in the body, hydrocyanic acid, inhibits tissue respiration. As a result, oxygen that enters to the cells using the red blood cells are not able to be absorbed. Fabric did not seem to «see» the oxygen molecules and do not perceive them.
Developing acute tissue hypoxia. Cells deprived of oxygen die from exhaustion and starvation. Also, this poison affects the nervous tissue, brain cells. The entire body is suffering from severe intoxication and lack of oxygen.
In cases of poisoning by harzianum also observed the development of hypoxia and anoxia. A distinctive feature is the defeat of the respiratory system and the development of dyspnea, acute respiratory failure.
The clinical picture
Symptoms of poisoning substances obscheyadovitym actions are developing rapidly. In the case of severe poisoning may develop instant death. The severity of poisoning depends on the concentration of poison in the air and the duration of its inhalation.
Below are the symptoms of cyanide poisoning and harzianum.
- Bright pink color of the visible mucous membranes.
- Severe headache, weakness, dizziness. The person may lose balance, fall due to severe muscle weakness.
- Shortness of breath, the appearance of the mixed dyspnea. In cases of poisoning by Gloriana will also develop dry suffocating cough and tickle in the oropharynx.
- Slurring of speech, she becomes incoherent and unintelligible.
- Repeated vomiting caused by irritation of the nerve cells of the brain.
- A feeling of numbness in the mouth, increased production of saliva.
- Violation of coordination of movements, which develops due to muscle weakness and cerebellar.
- Seizures (as in epilepsy).
- Falling into a deep coma.
Please note that if lightning, swift poisoning in humans virtually all of the above symptoms. He immediately loses consciousness is downloaded into a coma. Death may occur in 1-2 minutes.
With the development of poisoning obscheyadovitym substances, you should immediately withdraw poisoned to fresh air. The longer he will be under the influence of the poison, the worse his prognosis for life.
Remember, that at the conclusion of an affected person from the premises contaminated with hydrocyanic acid or harzianum, you must first take care of your safety: wear a mask.
After the removal of poison from the danger zone, you need to immediately call an ambulance. If a few people affected, you must inform the service Manager of SMP the exact number.
Unbutton the patient’s shirt and tie. Clothing should not interfere with his free breathing. If the patient is conscious, keep him calm. Give him a drink of water or tea, wash with plain water. If you have at hand the drugs from the group of sorbents, like activated carbon, can give them to the patient.
In case of loss of consciousness you’ll need to put it on a firm and level surface, to raise up the legs, turn his head to one side. You must check the victim breathing and pulse.
Pulse check the carotid in the neck. There it is easy to palpate. Breathing is checked by hand, which is to lie the patient on the chest. On the inhale, it rises, on the exhale – is omitted.
Stop breathing and heartbeat is the main sign of clinical death. At its development we must immediately begin to conduct indirect heart massage and artificial respiration «mouth to mouth».
The main treatment is carried out in a hospital. The paramedics arrived on a call, conduct a rapid assessment of the poisoned man, checking his breathing, pulse, pressure, saturation. If necessary, carry out artificial respiration.
Hospitalization is carried out immediately in the nearest emergency Department. The main part of the treatment of poisoning is the administration of antidote – hromosmona and magnesium thiosulfate.
The patient is constantly in a gas mask. He will emitter connected through which are injected intravenous fluids and medication. For normalizing heart rhythm applies kordiamin. The treatment includes steroids, antihistamines, vitamin complexes.
In parallel with the treatment the patient is being examined, determined the gaseous composition of his blood, the complications of the internal organs, checks the coagulation of blood.
Prussic acid poisoning and harzianum does not go unnoticed to humans. After discharge from the hospital, patients undergo a medical examination which is defined by the disabled person, and, if necessary, disability.
To the possible consequences and complications of poisoning obscheyadovitym substances include:
- chronic renal failure;
- violation of the liver, toxic hepatitis;
- paresis and paralysis of extremities;
- various neurological disorders.
The man who survived poisoning with hydrocyanic acid, in the future, may experience impaired memory, speech. Disturbed coordination of movements, tremor, unsteadiness when walking may be retained until the end of life.
Prevention of poisoning
Prevention of poisoning obscheyadovitym substances is aimed at preventing the development of contact harzianum and hydrocyanic acid. It consists of the following recommendations:
- When working with obscheyadovitym chemicals use gas masks and protective suits.
- Follow all job safety instructions.
- Check the condition of the equipment before you start working with it.
- Observe rules of personal hygiene.
- In the case of accidents immediately wear a mask and begin evacuation.
Poisoning obscheyadovitym chemicals is very dangerous. It causes poisoning of the whole organism. Tissues and cells cease to take oxygen and begin to die from hypoxia. First and foremost, disrupted Central nervous system and heart. In the case of acute poisoning, the patient dies within the first few minutes. Treatment was provided in intensive care, it consists of the introduction of antidotes, IV fluids, heart medications and vitamin complexes. Even when time begun treatment the person may remain disabled for life. To avoid poisoning, you can use the compliance with preventive recommendations for working with obscheyadovitym substances.