Treatment of food poisoning in the home
Treatment of food poisoning in the home
Food poisoning is one of the most common diseases worldwide. It can be caused by a huge number of reasons. In this article, we reviewed the help with food poisoning in the home, the symptoms and signs of this disease, the cases in which should be treated in hospital.
What can cause poisoning
Even the most innocuous food can cause poisoning. Below are the main situations in which most often develops food poisoning:
- Eating expired or spoiled food. Even fresh food if not properly stored can be dangerous.
- Infection with intestinal infections (salmonellosis, dysentery, intestinal shelf) can occur when eating contaminated food or when cooking a human carrier of the bacteria.
- Failure to follow the basics of personal hygiene, neglect of washing hands before eating.
- The eating from dirty dishes, after the sick person. Such contamination is also possible in catering establishments.
- Mushroom poisoning. The dangers are not only poisonous, but the edible mushroom varieties.
- The consumption of contaminated canned food contaminated with botulism. Contrary to misconceptions, the dangerous can be not only canned meat. The botulism bacteria can multiply and banks with covered vegetables, compotes, jams.
The main clinical manifestations of food poisoning
The first signs of food poisoning develop over 4-8 hours after eating spoiled or contaminated food. In children, the symptoms can develop quickly.
Please note that the speed of onset of symptoms depends on the severity of the poisoning. Food intoxication is severe, they may develop within the first few hours.
The main clinical manifestations of food poisoning:
- nausea and vomiting are the first signs of poisoning. Vomit may consist of remnants of eaten, bile, gastric juice. Vomiting can be repeated, to bring only temporary relief;
- abdominal pain can wear sharp or aching in nature. If you have a stomach, it is localized «in the stomach». The feeling of spasms in the stomach develops in the intestinal colic;
- abundant and repeated diarrhea. The form of the stool depends on the type of intestinal infection. When salmonellosis they are frothy, greenish, dysentery – watery, blood streaked. The act of defecation may be accompanied by painful spasms in the intestine;
- hyperthermia – increased body temperature means severe intoxication. In case of intestinal bacterial infections, the temperature may rise to 39 degrees;
- headache, weakness and dizziness – the signs of dehydration and intoxication;
- tachycardia – rapid heartbeat. This symptom is a sign of abnormal water and electrolyte balance in the body. Also tachycardia always accompanied by fever. With its growth and one degree pulse increased by 10 beats/min.
- The decrease in blood pressure (hypotension) is a symptom of a serious condition.
Please note that in case of severe poisoning and not seeking medical help may develop convulsions, disturbance of consciousness, respiratory and cardiovascular insufficiency, kidney and other internal organs.
First aid for the development of food poisoning
What to do when food poisoning in the first place? First you need to seek help from doctors. If you see that the condition of the poisoned person is broken, he has repeated vomiting and diarrhea, extreme weakness and fever – call the ambulance. In the case of a normal state of health of the patient, individual episodes of diarrhea and vomiting can cause a GP at home or by yourself to come to the clinic.
Remember that to self-medicate poisoning is strictly prohibited! Only a doctor, after inspection and examination of the patient, can make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate etiological treatment of poisoning.
First aid for food poisoning is carried out independently before the arrival of the medical team. In the case of severe poisoning from it depends the survival of the patient.
Below detail what to do in case of poisoning at home on the stage of rendering first aid to the patient.
Eaten spoiled food can remain in the gastric cavity for 6-10 hours. Due to the action of its toxins, gastric motility slows down, and it ceases to evacuate food in the intestines. Gastric lavage is necessary for his purification from toxins, poor quality food residues, pathogenic micro-organisms.
In order to self-wash out the stomach, you should drink in one gulp a liter of plain water at room temperature and immediately to snatch it. To provoke vomiting can with his two fingers in his mouth and pushing the tongue root. For greater efficiency it is necessary to repeat lavage several times.
This procedure is not available with the appearance of black or bloody vomiting, and children 3 years of age and people with impaired consciousness.
Enema helps to clean the intestines, remove the intoxication syndrome and reduce body temperature. Despite the nuisance of this procedure, it is absolutely necessary for food poisoning.
Pear to enemas should be in every home medicine Cabinet. For children are special pears small volume (100, 200, or 500 ml).
At home for enemas may be used only with simple boiled water at room temperature. The purification should be repeated several times. Effective intestinal lavage involves the emergence of clean wash water.
Please note that it is forbidden to use drugs or herbal decoction for purgation in the home. Also it is impossible to pour with the enema with warm or cold water.
Sorbents is necessary drugs are saviors in cases of poisoning by food. They must be all at home. These drugs, once in the stomach and intestines, bind, neutralize and eliminate toxins and bacteria from the body. Also, the sorbents reduce the diarrhea, thereby protecting the person from excessive fluid loss and the development of dehydration.
Before taking sorbents make sure they are not expired. Usually the date of manufacture or the end of the shelf life indicated on the package. In the user details read the terms of drug dosing. All brands of sorbents rules of calculation of the required dosage vary. Some dose is calculated by weight and others by age.
Can be used any of the drugs in this group. For example:
- activated carbon;
- white charcoal.
Drinking plenty of fluids is necessary to restore fluid and electrolyte balance, regulation of blood pH. Drinking should start after gastric lavage. In order not to provoke repeated episodes of vomiting, drink slowly, little and often. It is best to drink alkaline mineral water or sweet black tea. The drink should be at room temperature, no gas.
The medical team, arrived on a call, decide what to do for food poisoning, how to help the patient decide on the need of hospitalization. After seeing the patient, checking his pulse, pressure, respiration and saturation medco will begin first aid treatment, which in cases of poisoning by food, consists of:
- the introduction of antiemetic drugs;
- droppers with solutions to correct dehydration;
- drugs, for the regulation of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
Remember that emergency doctors do not prescribe and do not give any recommendations for further management of the patient. Their job responsibilities include only the provision of first aid and hospitalization of the patient to the hospital.
If the patient’s condition is medium or heavy, it immediately hospitalityat in infectious diseases or intensive care unit where he will undergo further treatment.
In case of poisoning mild possible treatment on an outpatient basis, at home.
Treatment of poisoning in the home
The food poisoning treatment at home is carried out only under the supervision of a physician. This can be a family doctor or a therapist. He examines the patient and thoroughly explains how to treat. Its recommendations should be carefully adhered to.
The main components of the treatment of poisoning in the home.
The patient in the first days of the disease need to provide complete rest. It needs to stay in bed and regain your lost strength. To go to work, exercise or household chores is not recommended at this time.
The room in which the patient is located should be regularly ventilated. Spend it with a damp MOP daily.
Diet after food poisoning is a critical component of effective treatment. It helps to recover the food system and all organs, provides replenishment of lost body electrolytes and trace elements.
In the diet should eat little and often, a break between meals should not exceed 3 hours. Such frequent and split meals provides regular work of the stomach and intestines, and restores the motility of the digestive glands.
During the diet you can eat the following foods and dishes:
- rice and oat porridge, cooked in plain water. You can add a little vegetable oil, sugar or salt;
- chicken broth made from chicken breast. In its preparation do not add the pepper, Bay leaf or other spices;
- boiled eggs or omelette, steamed;
- boiled lean meat Turkey or chicken, fish;
- from fruits you can eat bananas and baked apples
- boiled or steamed vegetables (carrot, potato, zucchini).
Please note that during treatment to give up Smoking, coffee drinking, alcohol, greasy, fried, spicy and smoked. All food should be boiled, steamed or cooked in the oven or the steamer.
In the first days after poisoning should drink plenty of fluids. It is necessary to restore fluid and electrolyte balance, elimination of toxicity and dehydration. You can drink:
- alkaline mineral water without gases, for example, «Borjomi»;
- sweet black tea;
- a decoction of rose hips, chamomile, St. John’s wort;
- weak green tea;
- sweet fruit compotes.
For dehydration can be used the drug regidron. In composition it is identical with the solutions that drip into the IV drip to replenish lost fluids. It is sold in sachets which are dissolved with 1 liter of plain water. In the day you can drink 2-3 liters of this treatment solution.
These drugs are prescribed to regulate digestion and restore digestive gland. Take them during meals 3 times a day.
If the doctor did not name the required dosage, you can read it in the instructions.
With the development of intestinal infections the doctor prescribes antibiotics, whose action is directed on elimination of the pathogenic bacteria that caused the disease.
Take them according to prescription, to adhere strictly to the dosage, don’t skip doses.
Antispasmodics (nosh-PA, drotaverine) is to eliminate intestinal colic, and abdominal pain. These drugs are solely symptomatic. If the pain is gone – re-take is not necessary.
Probiotics are medicines that restore the intestinal microflora. Their reception should start after the end of antibiotic therapy. Preparations: lineks, Bifiform.
Sorbents can be scheduled for several days after poisoning. They help to bring the remains of toxins, bacteria. Take these drugs separately from other medications and food. They can neutralize not only toxins, but also taken drugs.
Treatment of poisoning in the home can be conducted only under the supervision of a physician. Self-medication is strictly prohibited and may lead to serious complications. When the first symptoms of the disease need to flush the patient’s stomach and intestines, give the sorbents. Treatment mild forms of poisoning can be done at home, serious patients are admitted in intensive care or infectious disease clinic. The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the patient’s condition and timely treatment for medical help.