Viral intestinal infection: symptoms and treatment
Causes of viral intestinal infection
Intestinal infections are fairly widespread, especially among children. Failure to comply with basic hygiene standards can lead to serious consequences. Viral infection once in the body, begins its destructive action. The weakened body is affected infectious agents repeatedly. And the consequences could be very sad: from chronic disease to death.
What causes intestinal infection
Disease viruses are transmitted, at least – bacteria. Viral intestinal infection carries a risk and is related to the acute infectious diseases. It affects the stomach or small intestine may both bodies. Arise diseases: enteritis or gastroenteritis.
- Rotaviruses, which are divided into several forms. The most characteristic lesions of the viruses of group A, which live in the cells of the upper part of the small intestine. This is the most common viruses.
- The reovirus have similar structure. Their place of residence – small intestine and upper respiratory tract, leading to respiratory diseases.
- Adenoviruses are often associated with the development of respiratory diseases, but some of the varieties can trigger diarrhea.
- Enteroviruses cause various disorders associated with diseases of the digestive system.
Rotaviruses have a relatively short incubation period, the duration of which from 1 to 3 days. There is a heavy occurrence of the disease, especially in children. Adenoviruses affect the tissues of the lymphatic system, may affect the mucous membranes of the eye.
Rotavirus is not usually causing serious harm to the body and lead to complications, but the adenovirus causes the rapid development of otitis, sinusitis, angina, acute pneumonia. Chronic intestinal disease worse and treatment becomes difficult.
Enteric viral infection in any form causes irreparable harm to human health. In the course of the disease in an acute form the need for treatment in hospital.
How is intestinal infection
Rotavirus gets to a healthy person from the patient. Viruses highlighted with chair. Consequently, infection occurs by the fecal-oral route (through contact, through food, dirty hands). Possible airborne mode of transmission. The disease is more common in the offseason. And most of the infection affects children.
Reovirus infection is transferred from the virus carriers. Moreover, the carrier can be animal. Pathways: airborne and contact-household. Asymptomatic course of the disease gives the possibility of easy infection.
Source adenovirus is a sick person, at least – his media. Airborne route of infection here is the main. Utensils and personal items can be a source of infection.
Enterovirus enters the body of a healthy person through the infected person. Fecal-oral path – way of spread of the disease, the virus enters a healthy person and through the air. Possible transmission of infection via different sources.
The immune system becomes weakened after penetration of the virus gastrointestinal infection. He becomes unstable and people can get sick many times.
Viruses can survive for long periods in the environment. They are immune to many chemical agents. They are able to persist at low temperatures. In the environment viruses have the appearance of crystals in which there are processes of life. And only once in the body, they begin to Express themselves.
As the infection gets to the intestines
The structure of the digestive tract is known to all from school. He founded the oral cavity, the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, consisting of several departments, which ends in the large intestine.
Penetration of foreign agents protect the enzyme lysozyme secreted into the oral cavity. Next obstacle – the hydrochloric acid formed in the stomach and is part of gastric juice. Acid kills most microorganisms, but not all.
The third barrier is the villi of the small intestine. They perform digestive, protective and transport roles. In the intestinal mucosa includes immunoglobulin, which affects the immune system. If pathogenic microbes are all obstacles, the sickness can not be avoided.
It inhabits the intestinal microflora, among which is necessary to complete the work (obligatory). She has an important role in the processes of digestion and protect the intestines from extraneous agents.
«Lives» in the gut microflora and incremental, and includes opportunistic. Plus, the microflora produces enzymes for digestion, and opportunistic component is not as useful and can cause intestinal syndrome. The remaining micro-organisms belong to a viral intestinal infection which is dangerous and contributes to the development of the disease.
Lose intestinal system with viruses: symptoms
The symptoms for different age groups do not differ. Usually children and the elderly get sick more often and harder. In addition, they can become infected repeatedly, what can be said about adults with strong immune systems. When infected by different viruses the signs of illness will be different.
During rotavirus infection is observed:
- temperature up to +40 C;
- nausea and retching, relieved after vomiting;
- periodic and prolonged diarrhea (yellow or white mucus);
- the symptoms of respiratory illnesses.
- lack of appetite;
- indifference to everything, the desire to sleep, headaches;
- dehydration due to vomiting or diarrhea.
The combination of acute gastroenteritis and diseases of the upper respiratory tract indicates the presence of rotavirus. If the intoxication is strong, then the sclera of the eyes and skin may turn yellow. With a little pressure on her stomach audibly rumbling.
If the body is present adenoviruses, they are difficult to distinguish from rotavirus infection, as many signs are the same:
- high fever that lasts a long time,
serious intoxication of the organism;
- stools are watery and profuse;
- vomiting, which disappear in 2-3 days;
- lymph nodes increase in size;
- in the mouth inflamed mucous membranes;
- observed conjunctivitis.
Basic signs by which to recognize a disease – presence of inflammatory processes and severe intoxication. This suggests that viral intestinal infection triggered by the adenovirus.
Enterovirus manifests itself a little differently:
- there is also a high temperature;
- there is pain in muscles and joints, until the spasms;
- inflammation of the nasopharynx;
- pain in region of heart;
- fear of light, watery eyes, possible conjunctivitis;
- vomiting and diarrhea.
There are distinctive signs, but common symptoms is repeated. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and begin treatment.
To determine the type of infection and to adjust the course of treatment must be on the basis of analyses that are needed for laboratory research. If treatment is started late, possible complications and the treatment will be long lasting.
The symptoms of acute intestinal infection and its complications
Usually in the acute form of the virus intestinal infection is manifested in children. In addition, the disease develops quickly. Observed the same symptoms, but their manifestation is more serious:
- A more severe course of the disease.
- Dehydration occurs over a short period of time.
- There is a failure of intestinal virus.
The lack of body salt and fluid leads to complications and lethal consequences.
Complications that can occur:
- Dehydration, when water and salts in the body becomes insufficient. This reduces the weight, there is thirst, mucous membranes dry, skin becomes less elastic. Possible heart palpitations.
- A quick course of dehydration, which leads to loss of pressure in the shock state and death.
- Toxic shock is accompanied by a high temperature and an increased number of bacteria in the blood, which can result in the death of the sick.
- Acute renal failure.
Immediately call your doctor if you experience the following symptoms: fever with frequent stools (with blood) and vomiting, abdominal pain in the form of contractions, weakness, and constant thirst.
What measures can be taken in this disease
If there is abdominal pain and diarrhea, then you cannot take the following actions:
- Drinking painkillers, as this will make diagnosis difficult.
- Make astringents. While bacteria will accumulate in the intestine, with no way out from the body.
- Take an enema with hot water.
- Put a heating pad on the stomach area, which will increase inflammation.
- Use homeopathic or folk remedies: this will just stretch the time of diagnosis and start of treatment.
The outcome of the disease may be benign and can have serious consequences. Children in 25% of cases there is gastrointestinal pathology: changes in the function of the pancreas, problems in bile duct, intestinal dysbiosis.
The basics of treatment
Here we will focus on the General principles of treatment. How to treat, can be determined only by the doctor. Most importantly, time to take the following measures:
- Struggle with the loss of body fluids (dehydration).
- The holding and lifting of the detox symptoms (poisoning).
- Recovery of enzyme metabolism.
Viral infection with intestinal syndrome is always accompanied by diarrhea and vomiting. On the one hand is painfully, and with another – helps the body to partially get rid of the viruses. But thus there is dehydration which can not be tolerated. Therefore, you should drink plenty of fluids, and balance of water and salts to take the drug regidron. It contains the necessary elements to maintain the salt balance. Similar effects of a drug tsitraglyukosolan.
In infectious intestinal diseases without sorbents can not do. They excrete harmful substances by absorbing them. Helps smectite, neosmectin, polifepan and others. You can use activated charcoal, but it works rather poorly. Sorbents mistaken for a half-hour before meals.
To normalize the digestive processes, the enzymes. They restore the mucous membranes of the intestine that are most often damaged. Usually take the enzymes before eating. Best-known drugs of this series are Mezim, CREON, festal, were and others.
Infectious intestinal diseases are important diet. It helps in restoring the organs and their normal work which has been put to serious tests: inflammatory processes. Gastroenterologists prescribe a special diet No. 4. It is suitable for any age.
Sometimes prescribers to restore beneficial microflora in the gut. It is necessary to normalize their work. To relieve severe symptoms apply antispasmodic medications and medications that reduce fever.
Prevention: how to avoid the disease
To avoid such unpleasant illnesses can, if you observe non-specific prevention of viral intestinal infections:
- The basis is personal hygiene.
- The use of water in a boiled kind.
- Vegetables and fruits must be thoroughly washed under running water, and children wash boiled.
- Food should be heat-treated.
- Store perishable products for a short time.
- Garbage (especially food waste) to clean as often as possible.
- To maintain the cleanliness of the home and bathroom.
The rules are simple, but they will ensure the safety and health of the intestine.
We don’t normally think about health, for most it is a common procedure that is performed as necessary. Don’t always have to remember about prevention, you just need to let these rules become a habit. Then intestinal viral infection will pass you.