Vomiting and diarrhea in children: what to treat, what drugs to give
Causes and treatment of vomiting and diarrhea in a child
Diarrhea and vomiting – the most common symptoms of food poisoning in children. But parents should not be so careless, self-medicate at home. Because these symptoms may indicate the development of quite different diseases, and without proper diagnosis, the effectiveness of the therapy will be zero. And what can be detoxification using activated charcoal when we are talking about meningitis or salmonellosis. So all parents need to have an idea about what the causes may provoke intestinal disorders. And in some cases vomiting and diarrhea in a child require professional medical care.
The most common causes of vomiting and diarrhea
Spoiled food and overeating may cause disruption of the gastrointestinal tract. As a consequence, the child defy and pulls, trying to free the body of toxins or poorly digested food. At this stage in the absence of other signs of disease can give a child POLYSORB, smectite or activated carbon. If after an hour there is no improvement, call an ambulance.
Diarrhea and vomiting in a child may be triggered by such diseases:
- intestinal infections, including rotavirus, salmonellosis and dysentery;
- infectious diseases that are not related to the gastrointestinal tract (meningitis, pneumonia, influenza, otitis, etc.);
- acute food poisoning with products of low quality or non-compliance with rules of hygiene;
- as a symptom of a severe allergic reaction to medications;
- negative reaction to a new product introduced in the diet of the baby according to the General scheme of the lure;
- a side effect of antibiotic therapy, keeping the balance of the intestinal microflora;
- gastrointestinal diseases non-communicable nature (gastritis, protrusion of the walls of the esophagus, bowel obstruction, pilorospazme, duodenitis, gastroesophageal reflux);
- white diarrhea in violation of the work of the pancreas;
- pathology of the gallbladder;
- diseases of the Central nervous system in children one year of age (cerebral ischemia, increased intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus);
- the ingestion of a foreign body.
These are the main types of the disease, among the clinical manifestations of which are present the symptoms of diarrhea and nausea. Also the causes of ailments can be attributed to acclimatization, the healthy microflora in infants, force-feeding and errors in the diet of the baby or of breastfeeding mothers.
The overall clinical picture of possible diseases
In order to clearly understand what is going on with your baby, you need to assess his condition. If the child has diarrhea and vomiting, you need to pay attention to the presence of associated symptoms and health status of other family members. To make any specific findings to the person without medical education will be difficult. But with the deterioration of the condition this will allow time to navigate and to contact the clinic for diagnosis.
The body temperature of a baby:
- If the temperature is normal, then most likely your child has an allergic reaction or mild intoxication. Pathology of the gallbladder and other non-communicable diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are not excluded.
- A temperature in the range 37-37,5 0C manifested food poisoning and rotavirus. Also pay attention to the gums of the baby, maybe he’s just teething.
- High fever in combination with vomiting and diarrhoea, indicates the development of infectious diseases.
Discomfort and pain in the abdomen:
- spasmodic attack often accompanies food poisoning;
- a concomitant symptom of intestinal infection are acute colic;
- and pain a few hours after ingestion indicate possible dysbiosis.
Characteristics of feces:
- during viral infection, the feces has a watery consistency;
- diarrhea foamy structure indicates an infection of bacterial origin;
- the remains of undigested food are observed in malnutrition or allergies;
- bloody diarrhea could indicate food poisoning.
Feces blood can be a symptom of internal bleeding. Do not self medicate!
Assessment of vomit:
- vomiting immediately after a meal may develop due to allergic reactions;
- daily single bouts inherent in the overgrowth;
- vomiting not associated with food intake, indicate problems with the Central nervous system;
- bloody vomit observed in gastric ulcer, damage of the walls of the esophagus or mushroom poisoning, pesticides;
- scant occasional vomiting may disturb children aged 6-10 months at the time of teething.
Be sure to pay attention to all these details to accurately describe the symptoms physician. As the presumptive diagnosis is established on the basis of the initial examination, this information will be extremely useful.
Indications for hospital treatment
If you experience any symptoms, you should not give the child the first cure for diarrhea and vomiting. The situation may be much more serious than you think, and your initiative, you just distort the clinical picture. Please note all the above features, and only then take a decision.
There are a number of cases where the baby needs urgent expert help. Therefore, call an ambulance or take baby to the hospital yourself in these situations:
- The age of the little patients 3 years and younger (primarily this applies to infants and newborns).
- If vomiting and diarrhea accompanied by fever of more than 38 0C.
- The presence of blood in the stool.
- Repeated vomiting (4 times or more).
- Ongoing during the day diarrhea with acts of defecation more than 6 times.
- Refusal to eat and drink. Vomiting after every meal or drinking fluids.
- When the first signs of dehydration (dry lips, sunken eyes and fontanel, cry without slezotechenii, drowsiness).
In all other cases, if the child’s condition is not getting worse, call the pediatrician at the house. After the inspection, he will give instructions than to treat the baby.
Treatment of vomiting and diarrhea in children of different ages
If a child is ill, until the arrival of the doctor parents will need first aid. Simple activities will help to improve the condition of the crumbs and to prevent the development of complications. Your actions in this situation will depend on the age of the child.
Diarrhea and vomiting in infants
If the baby was not yet 1 years old and he is breastfed, let’s the breast on demand. Even if the application will be carried out more often than usual, do not worry. Your child needs to replenish lost fluid and nutrients. Also, in addition to breast milk, give with spoon or bottle other liquid after each bout of vomiting or diarrhea.
For iskusstvennomu feeding costs to implement in the usual way. It does not change the formula for feeding, if there is no suspicion that she provoked the disorder. But the amount of fluid should be increased to prevent dehydration.
With vomiting and diarrhea put rate of fluid for babies in one go – 100 ml. But if that’s not enough to quench your thirst, not to take away forcibly the bottle, let the baby to get enough. If he vomited immediately after drinking, continue to drink. Just make sure that the child drank slowly, in small portions and intermittently.
If the child absolutely refuses to drink and since the last feeding it has been more than 4 hours, call an ambulance immediately!
Modes of eating and drinking in children by year
If your child already has 1-2 years, in the absence of symptoms of communicable diseases or other pathologies, before the arrival of pediatrician recommended adhering to a hearty drink. To prevent dehydration, replenish stocks of fluid after each bout of vomiting or diarrhea.
If the child refuses to eat, go ahead and feed a little patient. But do not overfeed so as not to provoke a new episode of vomiting. Of the products it is better to give preference to those that have a bonding effect (applesauce, rice cereal, bananas and homemade biscuits). A few days later, when the condition improves, be sure to include in the diet of boiled vegetables, meat and dairy products.
In no case do not give sweets and sodas. The benefits of their use is questionable, but to strengthen the diarrhea they can.
Drink plenty of liquids as the basis of treatment for diarrhea and vomiting
Whatever medicines and folk remedies you are treated your child, without the active replenishment of fluid in the body even the most effective pills for nausea and diarrhea will not give the expected effect. First, for absorption of active substances in the blood need water, but just in time for the vomiting and diarrhea is very acute shortages. But secondly, in this period, the body is a violation of electrolyte balance and decrease blood glucose levels, exacerbating the patient’s condition.
For the replenishment of fluids not recommended to use pure water, juices, tea, milk or broth. According to experts, these drinks will only further provoke the gag reflex. And the salt content in them is too small, making the effect of dehydration will only increase. So, if possible, the treatment should be to give pharmaceutical preparations in powder form for the preparation of solutions and emulsions.
Alternatively, if it is not possible to buy medicines, you can prepare saline solution at home. On a liter of pure water, take 4 tsp sugar and 1 tsp of salt, mix it all and let the baby as needed (after each if vomiting or evacuation). The shelf life of the prepared solution is 24 h.
Therapeutic measures for the prevention of dehydration should start an hour later, after the child began to tear, or the first symptoms of the intestinal disorder.
Drugs with vomiting and diarrhea
List of drugs for the treatment of diarrhea and vomiting extensive as well as the list of reasons that triggered the malaise. Depending on the type of disease, in pediatric patients used such drugs:
- antiemetic – reglan, motilium (inpatient);
- antidiarrheal – loperamide, lopedium, loflatil, Imodium;
- sorbents – activated carbon, POLYSORB, enterosgel, APSCO, smectite;
- probiotics Lactofiltrum, hilak-Forte, laktiale, Linex;
- hormones and antihistamines for allergic reactions;
- antacids for stomach ailments;
- antibiotics for intestinal infections (selected);
- antispasmodics – papaverine, no-Spa;
- regidratanty to replenish fluid – rehydron, glyukosolan.
Treatment of children under one year, regardless of the cause of nausea and diarrhea is in the hospital.
Treatment of vomiting and diarrhea in a child: truth and myths
Independently deciding what to do before the arrival of the pediatrician, the parents assume all responsibility for the condition of the child. Very often the «old way» from diarrhea is given a pill of levomicetina and, if lucky, the child’s diarrhea stops. Here only not all know that this drug is an antibiotic, and the fastening effect is just a side effect of this drug. Moreover, the fastening effect can be so strong that the child will not go to the toilet over the next few days. Also, do not forget that antibiotics are only effective in case of bacterial infection, which in the case of diarrhea is extremely unlikely. And even in this situation, you can do more secure methods.
Selecting treatment for children, do not get involved with drugs that stop the colon cleanse. Due to the development of a large number of side effects, the appointment of antidiarrheal drugs should only deal with the attending physician and subject to strict control.
The fact that diarrhea in cases of poisoning or infection is a natural method of removing toxins from the body. Blocking protective reaction of pills leads to a reduction in the rate of elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and, consequently, a worsening of the patient’s condition.
Treatment with chelators
In the fight against digestive disorders well proven drugs of the class of chelators. These pills prefer to take adults at the first sign of illness. As a remedy for vomiting and diarrhea, they help bind toxins and remove them from the body, providing a slight bonding action. Improving the condition of the child is celebrated by getting rid of pathogenic microflora and produced her waste products.
Despite the relative safety of these drugs, it is imperative to adhere strictly to the instructions and dosage. Higher doses of sorbents does not speed up the healing process.
The effectiveness of lactic acid bacteria during vomiting and diarrhea
According to the latest clinical trials, stimulation of growth of beneficial microflora allows you to resist the spread of infection and accelerates the excretion of toxins from the body.
This purpose can be assigned to preparations containing in its composition prebiotics and probiotics. Lactobacillus complex antibacterial therapy of diarrhea and vomiting to help prevent the development of complications associated with the effects of antibiotics on the body.
Antiemetic drugs in Pediatrics
Medicines that suppress the attack of vomiting and nausea, not used for the treatment of children in the home. The only situation when in pediatric practice the purpose of this group of drugs justified – persistent vomiting, continuing for days. The obligatory condition is the child’s stay in the hospital treatment.
Despite an impressive list of reasons for the diarrhoea and vomiting, most of these diseases, if timely medical treatment is independently. Significant improvement the child’s parents will be able to observe after only a few days of therapy. In this period, the child becomes more active, it improves the appetite, normal stool, retching and completely disappear. A full recovery will require not more than a week.