What is the danger of lead to human body
Lead poisoning: effects and treatment
Lead is a heavy metal, it tends to accumulate in the body. Even a small dose, but systematically entering the body, lead to the concentration of the substance. Lead in high doses is poisonous to humans.
The main sources of poisoning
Inside the body the metal enters through the respiratory tract and the digestive organs, and then into the blood. It accumulates in the kidneys, bones and spleen. To get poisoning, an ample dose of 1 mg of lead per 1 l of water. In large densely populated cities, the rate of the substance exceeded 25 times.
Lead contains in water. When there is insufficient filtering on the old treatment facilities water lead is supplied to homes where it is used daily for cooking. When boiling harmful substances are not reduced.
Poisoning in the home can occur in people living in old houses built before 1960. In those days, lead was totally used in the construction. Therefore, there is a risk of metal poisoning. Sources can be:
- any of the enameled products;
- Wallpaper in old houses;
- communication – pipes and wires;
- the walls are painted with paint containing lead;
- old toys covered with paint.
Other sources of contamination with metal:
- vegetables grown near highways;
- fertilizers from bone meal;
A pair of lead enter the body inhalation:
- exhaust gases;
- vapor car batteries;
- emissions of aircraft engines;
- cigarette smoke.
The symptoms of lead poisoning in adults
Lead threat to human life. Metal for a long time without symptoms accumulates in the body. Chronic poisoning with prolonged intake of small doses of the poison remained unnoticed. The first clinical symptoms are nonspecific – weakness, fatigue, decreased performance, loss of appetite remain without attention of both the victims and doctors.
- skin is a pale earthy color;
- purple-gray border between the gums and teeth;
- increased secretion of gastric juice;
- persistent constipation;
- abdominal pain cramping nature;
- toxic damage of the liver cells.
What is the danger of lead to human body? The substance affects multiple systems:
- Central nervous system – irritability, insomnia, anxiety, disorders of the brain. In acute poisoning, loss of consciousness. Observed neurological disorders and mental disorders. In severe cases, it develops encephalopathy (organic brain damage resulting in the death of brain cells).
- The urinary system is disrupted, kidney function, fluid is not excreted from the body in full. A person develops hypertension. Damage to tubules and glomeruli. Developed progressive chronic renal failure.
- Peripheral nervous system – paralysis of the hand or the foot.
- The skeletal system during long-term exposure to lead accumulates in the bones and leads to osteomalacia (softening of bones).
In women, chronic lead poisoning causes reproductive disorders. Acute poisoning in pregnant women leads to premature birth or fetal death.
How does lead poisoning in children
The metal is especially harmful for children. Children suffering from chronic lead intoxication, have different signs of poisoning. It depends on the age of the child.
Newborns are far behind in physical development.
In young children under 5 years significantly reduced the level of intellectual development. This is due to the fact that lead affects the brain of the child. The kids continue to grow and become a mental retardation.
Oligophrenia, or dementia, is a pathology of the brain, which can be congenital or acquired. Characterized by persistent and malobrathum underdevelopment of intellectual and mental activities.
Children after 6-7 years cease to develop normally. And chronic poisoning they have manifested in the form of polyneuropathy.
Neuropathy is a peripheral nerve lesion with disturbance of sensation in the hands and feet. Gradually developing a General weakening of the body.
An important symptom of poisoning in children of any age is anemia. Lead destroys the red blood cells, which carry oxygen. As a consequence, the body of the child suffers from chronic oxygen starvation. And that’s one of the reasons for the formation of mental retardation.
Treatment of lead poisoning
In order to determine the presence of lead in the body, it is necessary to take a blood test.
Despite the fact that this chemical is a heavy metal, it is easily excreted from the body. For prescribers – chelates. This complex compounds that attract and concentrate the molecules around it lead. Then excreted with urine and feces.
Main therapeutic program in a toxicology ward in acute poisoning:
- Deep cleaning of the body.
- Cleaning the liver.
- Lymphatic drainage, purification of lymph and intercellular space.
- Regulation of the kidneys.
- Cleaning the blood and plasma.
- Detoxification of the chemical.
- Stabilization of the immune system.
- Symptomatic treatment.
Prevention of poisoning
How to test tap water for lead at home:
The 1st method. In sale there are special test strips, which you can use to determine the metal content. The strip must be dipped in water. If it turns yellow, the water has lead.
The 2nd method. Are sold in every pharmacy tablets potassium iodide. Some pills need to throw in check the water. If it is metal, the tablet is also yellow.
For water purification you can use different filtration system. Modular replacement filters can selectively filter any of the ingredients of water.
Protection during intoxication with lead:
- vitamins b, C, D;
- magnesium and calcium;
- different varieties of cabbage.
- you cannot plant fruit trees along the roads;
- Smoking, not only active, but passive, alcohol – source of exposure of lead;
- products in tin containers cannot be stored more than 5 years.
The minimum content of lead in the human body is the norm. The metal takes part in cellular metabolic processes. An excess of this chemical leads to severe disorders of the internal organs in adults and stunted development in children. To prevent the development of lead intoxication, it is necessary to carry out blood tests.