What to do for food poisoning at home
What to do for food poisoning
From the right to administer first aid if poisoning food often depends the life and health of a person. This disease carries a risk. In this article, we discussed what to do for food poisoning, how to give the patient first aid, when to go to the doctors for treatment.
The main causes of food poisoning
The reasons because of which can develop food poisoning, a lot. Any product is potentially dangerous to the human body. That is why this disease is so common among all age groups. The main causes of food poisoning include:
- contaminated with intestinal bacteria of food. Possible infection with Salmonella, Escherichia coli, dysentery;
- the use of expired and rotten food products;
- cooking the infected E. coli;
- eating from badly washed dishes;
- improper food storage;
- poisoning canned food contaminated with botulism. This infection lives and breeds only in the absence of oxygen. Can occur in fish, meat, mushroom, canned;
- mushroom poisoning.
The clinical picture of food poisoning
The first symptoms occur during the first 2-6 hours after eating contaminated or poor quality food. With a strong food poisoning clinical signs can develop in the first hours.
Please note that in the case of botulism the first signs of the disease may develop after 1-2 days.
In the case of food poisoning the following symptoms develop:
- nausea and subsequent vomiting. Vomit may consist of remnants of eaten, bile, gastric juice. Vomiting brings temporary relief, but then the nausea returned;
- abdominal pain may be localized in the stomach or be the type of intestinal colic;
- the increase in body temperature is possible with intestinal infection or in the development of inflammatory complications, such as gastritis, pancreatitis, cholecystitis. When salmonellosis it can rise up to 39,5 degrees.
- diarrhea develops in the first hours of the disease. When salmonellosis stool frothy, greenish, and in dysentery – watery, streaked with blood. Diarrhea may be accompanied by spasms in abdomen. profuse diarrhea leads to a rapid increase dehydration;
- flatulence and increased discharge of gases is accompanied by pain in the intestines;
- General weakness, dizziness accompany the intoxication syndrome. The patient becomes lethargic, drowsy;
- tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), hypotension (reduced blood pressure) – signs of toxic effects on food intake and fluid loss. For poisoning by certain species of fungi may increase blood pressure. In case of dehydration, the pulse becomes weak, irregular;
- respiratory failure develops with intoxication. The person is breathing frequent, superficial, complains of shortness of breath;
- cramps throughout the body, similar to an epileptic seizure, is characteristic of lesions of the nervous system by toxins. This is possible in case of intoxication by mushrooms, fish, alcohol;
- disturbance of consciousness, deep coma – signs of severe condition of the patient. They develop in acute poisoning, infectious-toxic shock.
Please note that small children the condition worsens faster than adults. Their body is very difficult to cope with the toxins and fluid loss, electrolytes.
What are the dangers of food poisoning
Many tend to think food poisoning is not dangerous and trifling condition, which did not need to seek medical help. Indeed, mild poisoning in most cases does not pose a risk to human life, but only a doctor after examination of the patient may also specifically assess the severity of the disease and the patient.
Below are the States that often develop on the background of severe foodborne diseases:
- Toxic shock – a condition caused by severe intoxication and heavy fluid loss. The shock is accompanied by disruption of the cardiovascular system, respiration, brain and kidneys.
- Acute gastritis develops in severe stomach poisoning toxins. The mucous membrane of this organ inflamed. Patient’s fever, deteriorating condition.
- Acute pancreatitis – inflammation of the pancreas. Encircling the patient feels unbearable pain in the abdomen, he has uncontrollable vomiting, may decrease the level of glucose in blood and bruises on the skin near the navel. The temperature rises above 38 degrees. This condition requires urgent surgical intervention.
- Acute kidney failure is accompanied by a decrease in amount of urine, edema, back pain.
- Gastrointestinal bleeding is a complication of food poisoning, which often occurs in patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Developing black vomiting and stools, extreme weakness, pale skin, tachycardia.
The basics of first aid for food poisoning
What to do when food poisoning at home? Taking into account the serious possible complications of this disease, you should immediately call the ambulance. Describe to the dispatcher the symptoms of a poisoned person and don’t forget to specify your exact home address.
Remember that self-poisoning is very dangerous. It can lead to severe disorders in the internal organs and nervous system.
Before arrival of physicians begin to provide first aid to the patient themselves. In the case of severe intoxication it may depend on life poisoned.
Below is detailed what to do in case of poisoning before the arrival of ambulance teams.
If people were poisoned by food, the first thing to do is to wash out the stomach. This unpleasant procedure will help to quickly get rid of the remnants of the poisoned and dangerous foods, toxins and pathogenic bacteria in the stomach and did not have time to get into the blood. Cleansing of the stomach allows to stop the rise of intoxication syndrome.
In order to wash out the stomach at home by yourself, you should chug a liter of plain water and snatch it up. To provoke vomiting can be «classic folk way» – two fingers in his mouth. If you feel that one washing was not enough, repeat the procedure again.
Catharsis is not possible for small children, with the appearance of black vomit or of blood, in violation of consciousness of the patient.
Please note that the use of potassium permanganate, according to current medical protocols, is not recommended. It can cause burns of the mucous membranes of the esophagus and stomach.
Enema should be a mandatory component in every home medicine Cabinet. In acute poisoning it is necessary to clean the intestines from pathogenic bacteria and toxins.
Enema is done on the basis of plain water at room temperature. At home it is forbidden to add any medications or substances. Is enema several times until a clean intestinal wash water.
If people were poisoned by food contaminated by pathogenic bacteria, the enema will help to reduce toxicity and remove them from the body.
Sorbents – the only drugs that can be given to a person at the stage of rendering first aid. Due to their structure they bind, neutralize and eliminate intestinal toxins and microorganisms, reduce the intensity of diarrhoea. Before their appointment, check their date of manufacture. Rules dispensing can be read in the instructions. They differ from each specific drug of this group.
In case of poisoning, you can use any of the sorbents, which are available in your home medicine Cabinet. For example, activated carbon, atoxil, smectite, sorbex, enterosgel.
Sorbents need to drink plenty of plain water. It will speed up their operation and increase efficiency.
Drink plenty of liquids
Start to drink the patient should immediately after gastric lavage. Fluid is necessary dehydrated and weakened body. In order not to provoke repeated episodes of vomiting, it is better to not drink in one gulp and little and often. For example, a SIP every few minutes.
If you have food poisoning, you can drink:
- dining room plain water;
- alkaline mineral water;
- weak sweet black tea.
Remember, give the patient to drink hot, carbonated or cold beverages is prohibited. They will worsen his condition that will cause vomiting and heartburn.
What if the person lost consciousness
Loss of consciousness may occur in case of severe condition of the patient caused by dehydration and intoxication syndrome. The patient should be placed on a flat and solid surface, to unbutton his shirt, lift the leg. So that he choked on vomit or his own tongue, turn his head to one side.
Before arrival of physicians regularly monitor the presence of breathing and heartbeat. The pulse is most convenient to check on Antero-lateral surface of the neck. It was there close to the skin is a large – vessel carotid artery, which feels the pulse.
To check for breathing, put your hand on the chest of the victim and follow its rise and fall with the inhale and exhale.
Stop breathing and heartbeat indicate the development of clinical death. In this case, you should immediately start doing chest compressions.
First aid is the medical team that arrived on a call. You need details to tell them about the volume you rendered first aid to the patient. After seeing the patient, check blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate and level of oxygen in the blood, the doctors will start rendering first aid, which consists of:
- the introduction of antiemetic drugs;
- droppers with solutions to eliminate intoxication and dehydration;
- connect oxygen masks;
- administration of drugs that regulate heart function and breathing.
Then doctors hospitalityat the victim to the nearest infectious Department. Patients in serious condition and placed in intensive care. The duration of treatment depends on timely access to medical care and condition of the patient.
In parallel with the treatment is a detailed examination of the patient, which is aimed at identifying complications and etiological pathogen intestinal infection.
Rehabilitation after poisoning
Any poisoning is the stress for all organs and systems. It is important to know what to do after the poisoning. When writing from the hospital the doctor will give you recommendations on nutrition and outpatient treatment.
In the first 2 weeks, the patient should follow a diet, to refuse Smoking, alcohol, fried, smoked, fatty and spicy.
To restore the intestinal microflora are assigned to probiotics, which are beneficial bacteria. In the case of complications (gastritis, cholecystitis) is their treatment.
Treatment of food poisoning should be under the supervision of a physician. Independently to try to recover is very dangerous. With the development of the first clinical signs of food intoxication should call the ambulance. Prior to her arrival, you need to wash the sick stomach, to do a cleansing enema, give sorbents and drink. The duration of treatment depends on the patient’s condition and the existence of complications or comorbidities.