Abscess tooth on gum, symptoms and treatment

Dental abscess is a frequent problem in people with low immunity and dental diseases. It can happen at any age, including in childhood. To get rid of the pathological inflammatory process impossible. The opening of the abscess can only be performed by a specialist and only under sterile conditions. If timely treatment help the tooth can be saved, and the spread of infection to suspend.

What is an abscess in the mouth

Abscess, irrespective of the place of its origin, is called an infectious disease that is accompanied by the appearance of purulent formations. Abscess of the gums is due to contact with pathogenic bacteria through the soft tissue damaged teeth. The alveolar part of the swelling, and it begins to accumulate pus, which except pathogenic bacteria also contains dead cells and white blood cells.

There are several varieties of dental abscess:

  1. Gingival (its other name — flux). Characterized by lesions solely of the soft tissues of the gums, and the periodontal ligament, the inflammatory process affects.
  2. The periodontal. The infection in this case, it moves towards the root of a tooth through alveolar bone. The process of chewing is accompanied by extreme pain. However, getting hot and cold (air, food, toothpaste, etc.) causes a very unpleasant feeling, which patients often describe as a «shock».
  3. Periapical. In this case, the complaints relate mostly dull and aching pain in a specific area of the gums and unpleasant smell. Chills, General malaise, frequent companions of an abscess. If to open the abscess before will happen the introduction of bacteria into the pulp, there is a high probability that the tooth will be saved.

Diagnosis usually doesn’t require much time. Given the symptoms, the doctor may perform an inspection of the oral cavity, sometimes to assign x-rays teeth, ultrasound or blood test. If treatment of the abscess tooth not start in a timely manner, there may be particularly dangerous to health and life consequences, in particular:

  • fistula;
  • the continued erosion of the jaw bone and complete loss of all teeth;
  • blood poisoning;
  • osteomyelitis (bone marrow failure);
  • diabetic outbreak;
  • Ludwig’s angina;
  • inflammation of the lungs;
  • swelling of the brain;
  • cardiovascular disease;
  • meningitis.

For the treatment of abscess of teeth the patient should consult the dentist and he can forward it to a relevant specialist — oral and maxillofacial surgeon, endodonty (specialist in dental channels). In those cases, when the disease has already gone far enough, it may require the help of a reconstructive plastic surgeon, an anesthesiologist, physician, infectious disease.

Why is there

A dental abscess can develop as a result of dental diseases, infectious lesions of the mucosa or soft tissues of the oral cavity. Bring pathogenic bacteria is possible, by performing certain procedures, for example, curing your teeth or carrying out a pierced tongue, cheeks. Among the factors contributing to the violation of tooth enamel in infectious lesions of the oral cavity include:

  1. infection bacteria as a result of performing injection (anesthesia, lavage);
  2. mechanical injuries that entail violation of the integrity of the tooth;
  3. any dental diseases that were not cured in a timely manner, in particular: caries, periodontitis, pulpitis, tooth cyst, gingivitis and the like;
  4. serious thermal or chemical injury of the oral cavity or mucosa;
  5. boils, cold sores, festering pimples that are near the mouth;
  6. contamination as a result of infection into the General circulation through the development of common diseases such as sore throats or flu;
  7. injury of the jaw;
  8. severe damage to the enamel;
  9. the change of pigmentation of the tooth (for example, if it is red, yellow);
  10. poorly executed seal, or not fully cleaned root canal after treatment.
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Increases the probability of occurrence of complications such as ulcers in people who:

  • haven’t been to the dentist;
  • not enough attention is paid to the hygiene of the oral cavity and the skin;
  • have diabetes mellitus;
  • have problems with chronic infectious diseases;
  • are treatment of cancer by chemotherapy or radiation therapy;
  • have autoimmune disease, AIDS or other common diseases, which greatly reduces immune function.

What is the pathology

The first sign, which gives you the opportunity to suspect abscess of the tooth, is pain. In most cases, it is localized on 1 tooth, but the infection extends to the other. At different stages of disease progression, the pain may have different character: dull, sharp, aching or throbbing. Increased pain when you press on the problematic area during mastication, the gums heating and cooling of the tooth.

Another characteristic, which among other dental pathologies differs abscess on the gum is swelling in the problematic area. It looks like a small bulb volume. Inside it contains pus, so the mouth may be felt unpleasant rotten smell.

As the game progresses, the infection can spread through the bloodstream, so there are additional symptoms, in particular:

  • fever;
  • poor sleep;
  • fatigue;
  • lack of appetite;
  • lethargy;
  • swollen lymph nodes (mostly under the chin, behind the ears and on the neck).

In more complex cases, inflated cheeks, neck, lips, appears dizziness, the temperature rises to high levels, the patient feels severe nausea.

These symptoms indicate infection of the blood or other organs and systems. The delay in this case, absolutely not. To obtain appropriate assistance is possible only in a hospital.

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In some cases, the abscess can be opened and the pus flows out. Accordingly, the main symptoms of the pathological process disappears, however this does not mean that the problem is solved. Abscess goes from acute to chronic. The soft tissues continue to be damaged, but because in a short time we can expect new exacerbations and even the appearance of fistulous.

How to treat

The effectiveness of treatment of a dental abscess depends on the accuracy of the diagnosis, the extent of the disease, General condition and age of the patient. The main task assigned to the dentist in this case — the prevention of infection and maintaining the health of the tooth.

Usually when abscess gums treatment is carried out using several methods:

Drainage. Done in cases when the tooth can still be saved. Cutting the abscess and draining its contents makes it possible to prevent the spread of infection.
Antibacterial therapy. Needed in order to eliminate pathological microorganisms. Most often, when the abscess is recommended penicillin (broad spectrum antibiotic). Its use should pass the course at least 7 days. The abscess in this case, it is held on the 5th day.
Rinse. It is necessary to wash out pus, fight against inflammation, bacteria and quickly heal wounds. The same procedure will have to comply with the patient in the postoperative period. As the main solution are: salted boiled water, decoction of chamomile or sage.
Anesthesia. You do not want to use the lesions of the gums powerful drugs. In most cases, the recommended non-prescription medicines based on ibuprofen or paracetamol.
Canal treatment root. Involves removing dental instruments the affected part of the pulp and draining of the abscess. All cleaned the canals are filled and sealed, sometimes superimposed crown. Such manipulation gives you the opportunity to save the natural tooth, however to get rid of the abscess.
The removal of the tooth. Is performed in cases where infection has penetrated into all channels of the tooth. Accordingly, it is necessary to eliminate the tooth, and then drain the pus. During the procedure, the surgeon must make the most efficient scraping of infected soft tissue.
Operation under General anesthesia. Takes place in particularly difficult situations, when the disease has already spread to the jaw, floor of the mouth or neck. In addition to combat by the abscess, the doctor performs in parallel filling the roots of teeth to prevent spoilage.
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In most cases, abscess of the teeth treated as an outpatient, however severe General symptoms of the patient have to be hospitalized.

Ways to prevent

According to the dentists, to prevent the development of inflammatory processes of the tooth is absolutely real. Just follow a few basic rules:

  1. Timely dental treatment and regular examination by a dentist every six months.
  2. Definitely, regardless of the circumstances, to carry out hygienic procedures of the oral cavity: brush not only using Fluor toothpaste, but dental floss.
  3. Successfully find the funds to care for the oral cavity (brush soft or medium hardness, pasta with vitamins, minerals and such that are age appropriate person).
  4. In case of occurrence of plaque and stones to contact the experts for professional cleaning.
  5. Use vitamin sets, eat plenty of fresh vegetables.
  6. To avoid thermal or mechanical injury of the oral cavity, jaws, teeth.
  7. The appearance of herpes lesions, wounds on the lips or skin around the mouth, the use of special antiviral and wound-healing ointment.
  8. Promptly treat chronic and acute infectious diseases.
  9. By any means to raise the immune system (in particular with adjuvants, sports, tempering, etc.).
  10. Do not eat too hot or too cold food, not to chew hard.
  11. Not to abuse the sweet, chewing gums, coffee or tea.
  12. Try not to SuperCool.


In cases when I had to install a dental implant, to treat or remove the tooth or to undergo a surgery in the oral cavity, the patient needs to follow the appearance of possible complications. For their prevention it is advisable to perform the rinse or use antiseptic sprays for oral cavity. In those cases, when there are any suspicious symptoms, it is better to see your dentist.

Given the dangers of the abscess, to engage in his self-treatment is strictly prohibited. At the first signs of inflammation is necessary to address to the expert, including in cases when swelling in the gums themselves disappear, and other symptoms appear with less intensity.