Abutment for implants: what is, types, installation

Before you decide on implants, you should understand what and how they will do, what materials and tools to use. Consider this article an abutment for implants, what it is, what are their types and how is the installation process for this element.

Before doing the implanting the doctor should explain and tell in detail the patient what treatment steps are conducted, what to expect in the postoperative period and how long it will be. Also give him the opportunity to choose among a variety of firms and types of implants, abutments and materials for the crowns, in order to obtain the desired appearance of the smile at an affordable price.

What is abutment?

In dentistry has long been used abutment in the implant. But originally the word came to refer to support with the installation of bridges. And just when I thought through how to install the artificial tooth, not compromising the integrity of the neighboring units with implants, the meaning of the word was moved to a completely different design.

Why the need for such an element? He is a connecting link between the pin, which replaces the tooth root and crown that is installed on it. To securely and comfortably fasten the visible part of the artificial tooth at its base, implanted deep into the gums, just to be efficient and thoughtful in every way adapter.

The installation of the abutment after the implant immediately or after some time, when fully healed gums. There are a number of variations, several methods of installation and good selection of manufacturers and materials from which they are made.


The production of the abutments provides for the possibility of their installation at any particular jaw bone and under most of the requirements of the clients. For this has devised a whole range of different variations which gives you the chance to pick the perfect items for every occasion. So, first is to divide the abutments are two main types:

  1. Standard.
  2. Individual.

The first are the most popular, cheaper and produced in bulk. They are quite versatile, but have a number of disadvantages, which are worth a mention:

  • not able to accurately follow the shape of the tooth that sometimes gives artificial its origin;
  • at the time of manufacture is not maintained perfect accuracy, possible small errors in dimensions;
  • not always exactly fit the shape of the gums, which requires additional surgical intervention for its correction;
  • sometimes putting pressure on the soft tissue, causing irritation or inflammation after the procedure.

It is much better to order a custom abutment, which will be executed exactly to the peculiarities of the gums and the shape of the dentition of the patient. They are created by performing a cast of the jaw, and then using special computer software produces a three-dimensional model that helps is to pick up all the desired sizes, shapes, slopes, and even the hue of each element.

Of course, the price of this abutment will be much higher, but the patient can quickly get used to it, and the process operation will be much more comfortable. It is necessary to highlight the clear advantages of this product:

  • are determined by individual characteristics of the patient, bite, bone, angles and tilts of the implant, the size of units in a row, etc.;
  • take into account the materials and other details of future bridges or crowns that are going to install on the abutment;
  • the maximum matching of a natural tooth, allowing you to achieve the aesthetic smile and perfect functionality during use;
  • precise adjustment of product under the form of gum, requires no additional surgical procedures and complex of tissue healing;
  • good fitting accuracy this is especially important when cementing the basics;
  • it reduces the risks of unpleasant side-reactions, improves the regeneration of tissues in the postoperative period;
  • the generation rate of the product.
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If to speak about the classification of abutments, then you should definitely mention the following types:

  1. The abutment, which is set immediately after implantation of the implant and is intended to help the soft tissue to form the desired image of the future of the tooth. He also performs a protective function against the ingress of bacteria, debris and food debris in an open wound. This is a temporary item, which is then replaced by one of the following.
  2. Standard – involves the selection of the most popular sizes, lengths and shapes that allow you to set a budget, but would be a good option.
  3. Angular, in some firms is called multiunit. It is needed in cases when the implant for any reason was not installed at a right angle and need special abutment for a proper transition between it and correctly placed crown.
  4. Direct is more suitable for ordinary cases where the design assumes a straight line. It is used most often, especially for the front zone.
  5. Spherical is a rounded element that is needed in situations installation of removable dentures.


In addition to the types and sizes, it should also decide what material will be created by a suitable abutment. This depends largely on the price of the product and its strength, and sometimes the appearance of the artificial tooth. Often doctors suggest the following:

  • Titan — except for the implant, it is also used to create the abutment, in rare cases, for angle and other abutments. It has good biocompatibility with human tissues, low price and quite reliable as a basis. Its only drawback – through the surface of the crowns he will Shine. Therefore choose only those units that are not located in the frontal zone of the series.
  • Zirconium – possess the maximum strength and look good externally. Zirconium oxide helps you meet all of the criteria necessary to create a safe and compatible with living tissues of the product. However, the price for them will be higher.
  • Plastic is the cheapest, but they really don’t like doctors, as are the similar constructions for long and quickly break down. They are recommended to install only in those cases when a person needs time to gather up a suitable amount of a better abutment.
  • The ideal solution is the combination of the materials of zirconium dioxide and titanium. This alloy is able to give the design maximum strength, without spoiling the appearance of the smile. Such abutments are made to order and are much higher than usual.
  • Ceramic – the ideal solution when the patient has an Allergy to any other materials. Also, they look good and are capable of reproducing the natural shade of the tooth.


In different countries dental companies offer their own versions of products for implantation. The most common, which is on the Russian market are the following:

  1. Nobel — creates the abutments of the combinations of alloys that are most commonly used titanium, zirconium and gold. These products are well acclimatized, do not cause allergies, are reliable and durable.
  2. Alpha Bio is an Israeli company that offers the abutments and other elements to be implanted at very affordable prices. The materials used for their production are always used are biocompatible, and all the elements are well attached to the tissues of the gums.
  3. Xive MP – German manufacturer. The firm is characterized by high quality requirements and produces only high-quality design. Constant innovation and development give you the opportunity to create such abutments, which are easy to install and do not cause long addiction or adverse reactions of the patient.
  4. Locator – specializiruetsya on a narrow segment of removable dentures. The abutments are created for easy fixing and removing, if necessary, that gives the patient the opportunity to independently regulate the frequency of use of the structures.
  5. MIS – the firm, on the contrary, decided to create as many variations of the elements to be implanted in a variety of cases. It allows to select such abutments, which are suitable for removable and fixed constructions. Refers to the budget options.
  6. Astra Tech (Astra Tech) is a Swedish manufacturer of implants and other items for removable prosthetics. Through its own development, the company produces a reliable design for a comfortable adaptation, easy installation and maintenance of all elements.
  7. The German company Impro also creates quality products for implantology. And even on the market relatively recently, they still established themselves as a firm with a high level of reliability and reputation.
  8. The Swiss manufacturer Straumann implants (Straumann) provides abutments from titanium alloy and zirconium, and also performs constant new developments. They apply special coatings, elements, and use special methods of fastening the abutments, which are designed to withstand high stress and protect the internal parts from bacteria.
  9. Zimmer (Zimmer) is an American abutments and implants that are able to maintain a good competition. Manufactured products only high grade, at reasonable prices. Features of these abutments is that they are not made of titanium like the rest, and tantalum, which in many respects exceeds it.
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There are other manufacturers that offer more budget options of implants and abutments to them. For example, the company NeoBiotech create designs Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, that gives you the opportunity to save on implantation. It is a cheap Korean products.

Some private dentist can offer you to create a customized implant under special requests if the doctor has in its Arsenal, as the title of burn out abutment. It gives the opportunity to create a design without particularly high costs for any requirements of the patient.

Selection rules

How not to get lost in all the info and stay on the right? For this you need expert advice in their field of implantology with experience, which will take into account the many nuances of the designs and characteristics of the patient:

  • the natural thickness of the mucosal surface;
  • the distance between the edges of the teeth-antagonists;
  • the differences of the occlusion;
  • the desired angle between the implant and the crown;
  • for aesthetic conformity with the natural dentition;
  • any method of fixation, etc.

Largely role played, and the price per product, as not all people can pay for something better and more efficiently.

The ways of fixing

Not only the material of construction is responsible for security of attachment. To artificial tooth is not loose, and not broken with daily use, it should properly and accurately record. There are several ways to describe two of them:

  • screw mount – is produced by milling of the abutment, making it the right notches to tighten;
  • cementation – use a special medical composition for bonding two elements with each other.

The second option is a certain amount of risk, as imperfect contact of the abutment with the gingiva, the cement can get under it and cause irritation.

The nuances of the installation

This procedure is less painful than the implant and is performed under local anesthesia in a short period of time.

  1. Immediately after the implantation pin doctors set the healing abutment.
  2. When soft tissue heals, it is removed and pick the most suitable under all the features of the abutment.
  3. After the anesthesia of a desired area, the physician in accordance with the method of fixing makes specific manipulation, and sets the item.
  4. In the standard case, in a few weeks all tissue is completely healed and you can proceed to the final stage of prosthetics. Although if you are using rapid methods of attachment, all takes place in one session.
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Recommendations for care

Given that when the abutment was accomplished, though small, but the operation, you need to give time for the tissues to heal. Therefore, in the first days after the procedure, it is enough to rinse your mouth with special solutions. But after 2-3 days you can take a brush with soft bristles and easy to handle teeth and the abutments.

To monitor their purity is necessary because the bacteria are going to no less than the other surfaces of the oral cavity. And until you install permanent crowns, abutments have to resist the same treatment as entire dentition.

What can be complications?

When loosening of the bone is quite acceptable unscrewing or loss of the implant from the channel. To anticipate it can not no doctor, but to prevent similar patient often prescribe drugs with a high content of calcium.

In cases of overgrowing the place of installation the gum, the dentist will have to remove it and form do not all natural edge that may degrade the aesthetic characteristics of the series. Therefore it is better not to save on the abutment to the tissue healed exactly as required.

As after any operation may occur such unpleasant consequences, as bleeding, inflammation, rejection of material, joints and pain. In each case you need to contact the doctor for help and strictly follow his recommendations.

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The cost

To determine how much the whole process of implantation, it is necessary to consider each element, the material from which it is made, other features and the work of the doctor in the clinic. Prices on abutments the following:

Standard titanium abutments 3500-4000 rubles
Individual under the order 4500-5000
Plastic 2000
Zirconium 16500-18000

But this is conditional, since in many respects it depends on the manufacturer, need to put corner pieces, etc. for Example, if the abutments MIS are budget options, Swiss or German products will cost much more.

Further questions

► One-stage dental implant abutment fell out – what to do?

Rarely, but it happens that such designs fall. It is possible that a mistake was made when installing it. Therefore, you need to contact the doctor who did the procedure to fix it.

► Why is wobbling abutment?

Slacking this item can occur for various reasons. Sometimes to blame insecure and sometimes loosening of the bone tissue. You should consult your doctor to determine the cause and eliminate it.

► Why the abutment in the mouth seems cold?

Since the product is made of metal, it is considered normal, any unusual feelings in the mouth for the first time, including feeling cold.

► Can I change permanent abutments?

They are usually installed for a long time and do not touch once again. If there is a need to remove one item and replace another, it should only make the implant, preferably the same and the other abutment.