Supernumerary teeth are common pathology. As a rule, it will not be too serious hazards to human health, but can significantly hurt the bite, healthy dentition, to cause damage to the roots of other bone elements in the worst way to change a person’s appearance. But with timely treatment of diseases of dentition has all the chances to fully recover. Late diagnosis makes resort to the more complex and long-term treatment with the use of advanced tools and machines.
What is hyperdontia in danger
As you know, every adult should be 32 healthy teeth. However, there are times when a fully formed full dentition supplemented with extra elements. In this case, the diagnosis is hyperdontia teeth. Most of these anomalies are observed in the maxilla in the anterior region, next to the incisors and canines.
Additional teeth do not perform in the mouth no function, however, complicate daily hygiene, deformed bite, and in some cases make it impossible for normal biting, chewing, become a serious cosmetic problem.
However, the pathology of this type and can cause other problems, in particular:
- there is a high probability of a defect of speech;
- changing the position of healthy teeth;
- injury to the oral mucosa;
- damage to tooth roots and their damage;
- the appearance of the diastema (gap between two front teeth).
- the backlog of eruption of normal teeth.
How to understand the statistics, this pathology is not uncommon. In the total number of any-jaw anomalies on additional elements accounted for approximately 2-3%.
The exact cause of this pathology is still not detected, but some dentists attribute it to vitamin deficiency. Other versions relate to genetic inheritance and splitting of the tooth plate in the embryonic period.
In dentistry there are 4 basic types of connections of supernumerary teeth:
- The merger of roots. Observed in those cases where diagnostic methods confirm that the roots of normal and abnormal teeth is common, but the crowns are different. A rather complicated variant of the disease, as required elimination.
- The merger of the crowns. The opposite is the case. Dental crowns in common, but the roots are different.
- Full merger. As is clear from the name itself, the total and complete dichotomy of all: the roots and crown.
- Stratification. Abnormal enamel of the teeth in this case increases to normal.
Based on another classification is the location. Therefore, additional can be:
- subulate — placed in the maxilla between Central and lateral incisors.
- premolars — located on the lower jaw;
- premolari — in the buccal area near molars
- fangs more — have a place in the upper jaw.
As the disease appears
In fact, in 75% of cases observed the presence of only one supernumerary tooth and only a quarter of patients there may be 2 or more. With the full eruption of the anomalous process, it is hard to miss. Typically, these abnormalities are less common and are characterized by their conical shape (not always).
In most cases, supernumerary teeth located in the tooth row, however, approximately 17-20% of patients diagnosed impacted. In this case, additional elements are attached to the bone, close to the roots of the front teeth. Quite often they turned to the side, and sometimes on all 180º.
If pathology developed front incisors healthy teeth begin to erupt towards the sky. If they for its location he chose the place behind the normal range, then, on the contrary, the incisors begin to grow in the vestibular direction.
After the root system is fully developed, the permanent tooth may cease cutting. Additional pressure on the roots can lead to the premature closing of apical hole. The result is the very roots of the complete tooth bent, not providing the necessary height.
Symptoms for which the doctor determines hyperdontia are:
- impacted (not prorezalsya crown, hidden under a mucous membrane and located in the jaw bone);
- diastema (large interdental distance, Shcherbina);
- buccal or oral inclinations;
- titanomachia (twisted or deployed 180 teeth);
- the discrepancy between the size of both jaws, or one of them.
Most often the anomaly of the number of teeth revealed completely by accident during dental examination in childhood. Correct diagnosis the doctor easy. Sometimes the pathology is detected and the patient himself. To alert the doctor needs significant alveolar performances.
More accurate information gives you the opportunity to radiography. So, with the help of this method, you can learn about the number of supernumerary teeth, their influence on the root is healthy, the exact location, type, degree of development and condition of the surrounding tissues.
Sighting the radiograph is used to study the alveolar bone length of 4 teeth in the anterior part and 2-3 in the distal. On DPRs (i.e. panoramic x-ray) will be able to see the structure from both jaws. Accordingly, the doctor is able to assess the symmetry of the rudiments, as of bone, to construct a treatment plan, the ability to remove the pathology without compromising a healthy range.
Computed tomography is the most modern and accurate method of diagnosis. The advantage of this method is the high quality of the filming, the possibility of obtaining data in three projections. The computer tomography gives the opportunity to have all the necessary information about the relative positions of the dentition.
Differential diagnosis aims to identify the differences between the additional teeth and malignant tumors in the oral cavity, other anomalies. Physicians who set the diagnosis of hyperdontia are an oral surgeon and an orthodontist.
Treatment of disease depends on many factors, primarily the degree of the violations, the period of the formation of malocclusion, localization of pathology, etc. it is not necessary to remove unnecessary elements. In cases where additional bone is healthy, not harmful to the dentition and mucosa, and the adjacent normal tooth cannot fully perform its function or is destroyed, the affected, your doctor may choose the latter «wrong».
Small but extra sharp teeth, which are behind the series, can be sawed and thus reduce them in size. If they do not interfere with or adversely affect the appearance, they leave. Dentists-surgeons insist on surgical removal in the following situations:
- there is the likelihood of the diastema;
- disturbed eruption of the remaining bits;
- formed malocclusion;
- find retention.
When the vestibular view of hyperdontia usually leaves sufficient space for eruption of other teeth. Quite often the mere removal svarkomplekt element makes it possible to align the dentition. However, it happens not always. If the place is small, the dentist must expand the tooth row. For this purpose, various orthodontic appliances, dental techniques and technology.
It is important to know: titanomachia due to hyperdontia, also require surgical treatment. The task of the physician to rotate the flattened tooth around its axis and place it in a row correctly. For some time the patient should use a special dental splint or mouth guard.
Tooth retention after removal of the so-called interference can erupt on their own. If this does not happen, a specialist may suggest surgical exposure of the crowns and fixed good tooth with an orthodontic apparatus.
Drug treatment is aimed at relieving some of the symptoms of hyperdontia. For example, a special mouthwash and ointments can be applied, if additional tooth damage oral mucosa, pain — if there is a strong pressure on neighbouring cells and tissues, anti-inflammatory, homeopathic remedies have taken place during the eruption.
Methods of carrying out the removal procedure
Because the removal of unnecessary tooth element surgical manipulation, perform its only allowed in the hospital. In the same way as in case of other operations, a few days before the procedure the patient should not use alcoholic beverages, anticoagulants.
Before the operation the surgeon must carefully analyze the results of x-ray or computed tomography. Since the procedure itself can be very painful, the patient is given local anesthesia. In cases when a person is allergic to lidocaine or novocaine, the whole procedure is performed under General anesthesia.
Getting to the surgery, the physician first performs an incision in the place of localization of excess elements. Muco-supraspinous flap gently exfoliate. The doctor must release the extra tooth from the impending bone. To do this under observation of the ultrasonic device removes the bone tissue. Then you can remove it using the Elevator. The hole, which naturally occur in the place of manipulation, if necessary, the specialist can fill in a special artificial bone material. Delaminated flap is laid in place and carefully sutured.
Usually the patient can return home the same day. Of course, in the next 1-2 weeks he will have to visit your doctor and bandaging. To avoid possible postoperative complications are often written out an antibiotic. It depends on the duration and the morbidity of the operation, the condition of the patient.
To speed up the healing period of the wound, the patient should perform the rinsing of the mouth with special antiseptic solutions, such as furacilin, decoction of chamomile.
Hyperdontia most often discovered in childhood, but struggle with it in most cases begins in adulthood. Meanwhile, to correct the bite from a baby is much easier. Given the potential danger, parents should be sure to follow the process of eruption of new teeth, take your child for a visit to the dentist every 6-9 months. If necessary, the doctor may put a record on and enter supernumerary teeth in a row.