Alveolitis after tooth extraction: symptoms, treatment
Alveolitis after tooth extraction — this can occur as a result of dental treatment at the dentist. Why it happens and what to do if found symptoms of inflammation?
Generally, a tooth extraction is the procedure unpleasant. Even if dental surgery is not felt pain, then later she is still there and often does not subside for several days. But sometimes the cause of pain is not nerve reconstruction and healing, and the development of complications, we will talk about this in today’s article.
What is alveolitis?
Alveolitis is called the inflammatory process occurring in the wound after tooth extraction. It begins as a result of entering into the hole of pathogenic organisms and the emergence of infections. In some histories of alveolitis causes injury to the gum tissue, located next to the wound.
Blood clot when the disease does not properly perform its function of protection, it may not be quite. This stops the healing process. In the wound accumulate saliva and food debris, decay which infects an open wound and provokes the active infection.
Alveolitis with a high probability will occur when the removal of wisdom teeth or molars. Cause infection can and complicated operation. Tooth extraction is considered complex if:
- tooth tissue is brittle, crumbles easily when you tap tools;
- roots were twisted, or were linked with the roots of other teeth;
- not erupted or fully erupted tooth;
- there are only the root and the upper part of the tooth destroyed.
These cases will require incision in the gums, remove the tooth in pieces or sawing through of the drill. Additional injury creates a very favorable environment for alveolitis.
Why start the development of alveolitis? Inflammation develops sometimes the doctor’s fault, unfair performed his work and left in the hole of the fabric. But often the cause of the alveolitis of the hole becomes neglect of the patient to hygiene and according to him the requirements.
The etiology of the disease includes other causes of complications. The confluence of several circumstances can trigger it. These include:
- Destruction of a blood clot that performs the function of protecting the open wound from infections. Pathogenic organisms can then penetrate into the hole, but in the ligaments of the tooth and the bone.
- Chronic inflammation of the gum tissue.
- Clusters of soft or is already hardened plaque. Them from falling (like pieces of the alveoli) during dental intervention into the hole causes the development of infection.
- The presence of caries on neighboring teeth.
- A weakened immune system. On the background of exhaustion, even complying with all the recommendations does not always help to avoid infection.
- Receiving solid food after tooth removal.
- Part of the cyst, in any way remaining in the hole.
- Bad treatment with antiseptics.
After the operation the doctor should squeeze the sides of the hole for a sufficient amount of blood. It should be filled to the brim, as a small clot does not protect adequately against infection of the wound. It can also cause alveolitis.
Inflammation of the wells appears a few days after surgical tooth extraction. If at first it only affects the top tissue, the condition is aggravated gradually, the infection affects the bone. In severe cases, there is a number of complications.
Signs at the beginning of the disease is poorly expressed:
- Soreness and redness of the gums in the affected area.
- The absence of part or all of a blood clot, the hole filled with food or saliva.
- Pain that becomes brighter during the meal.
Over time, there is slight discomfort and alveolitis progressing faster. In this case, the symptoms are specific:
- gray powder or decomposing the clot in the hole;
- increase the pain;
- swelling of the face;
- swollen lymph nodes, tenderness;
- the smell of pus and the secretion from the wound;
- temperature rise;
- redness of the gums, its swelling and pain.
The pain is starting to spread not only the gums, but may radiate to the head, the ear or the temple. She is strong, prevents the chewing of food. The appearance of pus indicates the development of severe stage of the disease. Detection of any symptoms is the absolute reason for the visit to the dentist.
The presence of purulent focus in the body creates health hazards. Can gradually develop intoxication, which is manifested as weakness, high temperature, nausea.
Alveolitis are divided into several types:
- serous — the pain does not stop, is aching in nature and increases only when trying to chew food. The body temperature is retained normal, lymph nodes not enlarged, too. This form of alveolitis appears throughout the week, developing within 72 hours. A week later, the inflammation proceeds to the next stage;
- purulent alveolitis — the pain is severe, the infection affects the human condition (fever, weakness). Edema affects the affected area, the cheeks, the face becomes puffy and asymmetrical. On the hole during the inspection it is easy to detect the plaque, pus. Difficult opening of the mouth, and from it there is an unpleasant smell. At a palpation a sharp pain, and the procedure may be noted that the thickened alveolar process in both parts of the wound;
- hypertrophic alveolitis is a chronic suppurative process, which is characterized by subsidence of the symptoms. Come to normal lymph nodes, disappear a large part of the symptoms occur even normalization of body temperature. The examination revealed proliferation of granulation tissue. Between them and the bone is particles of dead tissue are small in size. Tissue gums bluish, swollen, and separates from the wound pus.
The dentist carefully examines the mouth. Complaints and visual inspection is sufficient for diagnosis, but occasionally additional studies (x-ray, electromyography, CT). In the mouth the doctor finds a plaque with a greenish or yellowish tint. In the hole may be present and a blood clot, but in a decaying form. In the most severe forms the bone exposed. During the inspection, in addition to sepsis, acute noticeable odor.
Differential diagnosis is not too difficult since the symptoms are very specific. Delimit only the alveolitis alveolar neuritis. In the latter case, no high temperature and enlarged lymph nodes, there is no inflammation. In the hole may not be a clot, but instead is present the plaque. The treatment of the disease is faster and with the timely help of the danger it carries.
Swelling in the alveolitis is small, probably undetectable easy swelling. This distinguishes the disease from many pathologies of the oral cavity.
If you notice in the hole after tooth extraction something white, you must read the sign and understand its cause. And do I need to do the treatment in such a case.
How to treat alveolitis after tooth extraction?
Treatment of alveolitis is a complex process, at home to engage in them is prohibited! The use of folk remedies is under categorical prohibition, because without qualified help, it is very easy to get a number of complications.
Regardless of the form of the disease first carried out the cleaning wells from deposits and foreign bodies, which were the cause of the infection.
In the early stages of the disease
Upon detection of alveolitis in the initial stages it will be sufficient to perform the following procedure for curing:
- anesthetic blockade and local anesthesia performed in the first phase.
- the hole is washed with an antiseptic solution (furatsilin, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide);
- if necessary, remove the detected in the wound of a foreign part (the granulation tissue, part of bone, tooth);
- next, the hole is again washed with antiseptic solution and dried with gauze;
- on the wound, apply a cloth soaked drugs with analgesic effect and antiseptics.
Inflammatory effect after a few days subsides, and if not, then on the affected area regularly impose of an application with an antiseptic balm or gel.
At a later stage
The development of alveolitis poorly tolerated by the patient, therefore, use different methods for helping to heal faster:
- in severe stage of alveolitis in the hole after washing, put a tampon soaked in drugs that block inflammation and contributing to the restoration of microflora. This procedure relieves pain;
- if the infection is deep, nerve block injection of lidocaine. The blockade is repeated, if after 2 days not normal condition;
- blockade antistatic agents do several times;
- independently, the patient should have regular rinsing with potassium permanganate;
- the development of tissue necrosis requires the use of proteolytic enzymes. They not only reduce inflammation, but clear the upper part of the wound. Enzymes injected into the hole with gauze bandages, and then begins the process of dissolution of the necrotic areas;
- if there is a risk that the inflammation will move to the next fabric, definitely shows the use of antibiotics locally and internally.
The doctor selects the appropriate analgesics, sulfonamides and vitamins. In the further course of a vitamin therapy need to be repeated. In addition to the drugs described above methods of treatment prescribed and physical therapy. Significant benefits may provide:
- microwave therapy;
- infrared laser;
- UV radiation;
When exposure of the bone undergo special procedure of smoothing. If in the future will remain a threat to the progression of alveolitis, you will need to regularly treat the wound with antiseptic solutions until the pain disappears.
All the signs of inflammation will go away after 2 weeks. During this time may persist signs of infection, but they are smaller and gradually fade. Some time it is better not to take a firm and hot food, avoid rinsing the mouth.
After recovery, one should strictly relate to dental hygiene (how to care for your teeth and mouth?), a dentist to come at least 2 times a year.
Video: how to treat alveolitis after tooth extraction?
► Code for ICD-10
According to the international classification of diseases, alveolitis has the code K10.3
► What happens if not treated?
One of the most dangerous consequences of blood poisoning. You can get it if you delay going to the hospital or to take any medicines.
Complications the most severe stage occurs rapidly. Osteomyelitis, cellulitis, periostitis, abscess: this is only a small part of the hazardous consequences. Worst transfer alveolitis after tooth extraction patients with diabetes. The disease is pronounced and heavy, and the likelihood of complications is significantly higher.