Atrophy of the jawbone and teeth: causes, treatment

Quite a complex problem in dentistry is the atrophy of the jawbone and teeth. Describe the main causes of this problem and available methods of its treatment. To ignore such is impossible, as in a reduced volume of the alveolar process is almost impossible to place the implant, and thus to fully restore the dentition.

Though the bone and is the most durable elements in the human body, yet due to its structure and some of the natural processes occurring in it, destruction predominates over regeneration.

About bone tissue

Its structure is represented by two types of cells and filled with a compact substance of space between them:

  • osteoblasts – work to repair tissues, create collagen, and sodium and calcium compounds;
  • osteoclasts – destructive cells capable of due to the enzymes in the composition to reduce the amount of collagen;
  • the substance itself represented for the most part hydroxyapatite, that is, salts of calcium and phosphoric acid.

Under normal life cycle of all these cells are constantly working. Due to their regenerative and destructive functions of bone tissue has the ability to be fully renewed, but it happens quite slowly. It is believed that in General, bone is turning 10 years young and healthy people.

And only with age, the destructive action of cells begins to dominate regenerating. Therefore, atrophy of the bone tissue of the teeth after 35-40 years is common. This contributes to the shortage of some minerals in human nutrition, health problems and metabolic disorders.

Why is there atrophy of the bone tissue?

The doctors there are such factors that affect its condition and lead to bone loss even at a young age:

  • The loss of teeth – can be not only cause atrophy, but its consequence, the main symptom. If the unit is removed, its place is quickly trying to take «the neighbors». The result of the pressure changes on alveolar bone and bone cells actively destroy the tissue. A weakened and reduced bone unable to hold even a healthy one in the hole.
  • Age characteristics – which leads to a decrease of the jaw due to the extensive loss of teeth, changes in the pressure on the bone, lack blood flow and reduced metabolism.
  • Acute or chronic diseases of the internal systems of special importance is the function of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and the malfunctioning of the ovaries in female patients. Such health problems cause the lack of hydroxiapatite, and this, in turn, affects the strength of bones. To restore the normal operation of the jaw is necessary to achieve the prevalence of regenerative processes in the bone tissue over the devastating that it is almost impossible.
  • Any inflammatory disease occurring in the jaw area. They gradually affect the tissue and its cells and lead to irreversible consequences.
  • Dentures – especially if they are mismatched. Many doctors observed that some orthodontic constructions do not affect the gums as needed. In the case when the person has refused to carry out the implantation and agreed on a removable denture, it will soon lead to atrophy of the jawbone.
  • Injuries also lead to violations of the integrity of bone and promotes more rapid reduction.
  • The presence of tumor in the surrounding area, or pathological changes in the adjacent facial bones speeds up the work of osteoclasts, which affects loss tissue.
  • Some anatomical features and congenital abnormalities are considered primary and do not depend on how a person’s life.
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Mechanisms of disease

The decline in bone tissue goes completely unnoticed at first. And this leads to more serious problems, to notice them only in an advanced degree. So, disturbed the shape of the face shifts to the dental units, sink cheeks, lowered corners of the lips, increasingly visible asymmetries.

But the danger is not even aesthetic problems, and the inability to conduct high-quality implants, since bone volume is not enough to secure the rod. The result is to fully restore the dentition is not possible.

To notice the problem in time available with regular visits to a dentist and assessment of teeth. Preferably each unusual reactions to hot or cold, unexpected loss of units and other issues to consult a specialist. To see the bone loss on MRI, which is performed at the first suspicion of a violation of the regeneration process.

The main mechanism for the decrease jaw bone is manifested in the fact that in order to maintain normal functioning of osteoblasts requires a high level of metabolism, otherwise difficult excretion of lysosomal enzymes.

Because to achieve it by age or other changes in the body becomes more and more difficult, and restoring function gradually fades away, slowing down. The processes of destruction do not stop and begin to dominate, which leads to the loss of bone volume.


What to do in this case? Doctors recommend various ways to restore the dentition and bone volume. Though methods not so much, but still applies this classification:

  1. Sinus lift – is performed only on the upper jaw by raising the sinus. It can do both to the procedure of implanting an artificial rod or as a separate surgical intervention taking place in several stages.
  2. Express implantation for this looking for a way without a separate build tissue to implant a pin into the deeper layers of the bone. To do this, carefully select the most appropriate size and shape of the implant, and sometimes use miniature products able to gain a foothold, even a small amount of bone.
  3. Removable prosthetics – though does not lead to recovery and prevention of atrophy, however, is a reliable option for replacing lost units in any quantity. Over time the patient will begin to notice the formation of cracks between the mucosa and the structure, the loss of gums and other manifestations of atrophy.
  4. Osteoplasty – a natural or artificial material in the form of bone cells. They are used for building up the desired volume by using the most modern technologies. The doctors implanted cells in the alveolar area and additional drugs contribute to their growth.
  5. The installation of the bridges as in the case of a removable prosthesis, leads only to the replacement of deleted or missing teeth, but can not affect to prevent loss of the bone tissue. After a certain period of time also there are gaps between the bridge and the mucosa, which indicates the reduction of the volume of the solid fabric.
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The patient will have to choose, he desires only to restore the visible portion of the smile or engage in a fully bone regeneration and return its functionality throughout the volume. Ways to increase the solid fabric is still quite low for such a procedure need surgical intervention.

Any medicines to correct the situation impossible, although doctors try to prevent such problems. Make it available only for regular thorough examinations of the oral cavity, timely treatment and additional administration of calcium and other minerals to slow the natural destruction.

Video: atrophy of the jaw changes the expression?