Broken jaw — lower: signs, symptoms, treatment

In medical practice a broken jaw quite often, and recovery is very time consuming with a high probability of complications. Therefore, it is important to know how to help the victim, and also in time to see a specialist for a qualified therapy. The result depends on many factors — the clinical picture, the correctness of medical prescriptions and their strict observance.

What is a jaw fracture

A broken jaw is a severe pathological condition in which the linear integrity of the bones of the lower jaw is broken in one degree or another. The reason for this can be one of the traumatic factors as a result of mechanical impact, or severe disease (osteomyelitis, syphilis of the bone, tumors). There is also a violation of the integrity of the surrounding tissues — facial muscles, vessels and nerves.

There are a number of factors causing the fractures is:

  • The use of alcohol. This increases the risk of injury in an accident or from a fall or involvement in the conflict with the use of physical force;
  • Anatomy of the bone, which is adjustably secured at the extreme points of the jaw and forms an arc;
  • The use of these vehicles like a motorcycle, especially without reliable protection;
  • The structural features of the chin. It is this the most protruding part of the lower jaw often have a traumatic impact;
  • Some statistical data. A broken jaw is celebrated primarily in men aged 21 to 40 years.

The variety of maxillary fractures

Before you classification of mandibular fractures depending on various parameters:

  1. Location. Isolated damage to the upper or lower jaw bone;
  2. On a causal factor. It’s a broken jaw as a result of injury, and as a result of the pathological process in bones, soft tissues;
  3. According to the degree of violation of the integrity of the jaw. Found as a complete fracture and incomplete, broke off, or the crack;
  4. The number of fragments. According to this classification allocate an isolated fracture of the lower jaw are double, triple or multiple already;
  5. Along the line of impact. Note the following types — longitudinal, transverse, zigzag, straight, oblique, comminuted;
  6. According to the degree of soft tissue damage. It could be a closed fracture of the lower jaw, when wounded, only the bone, and open with muscle injury, blood vessels, nerves;
  7. According to the degree of onlinenote. Amid injuries can occur defects, sometimes it does not meet the combined cases.

Symptoms

To recognize a fracture of the lower jaw at first glance does not always work, but to give an objective picture of the needs specialist. The situation is complicated by the fact that the victim may be conscious or get in addition and traumatic brain injury. Therefore, when it is necessary to define the fracture in the lower jaw, symptoms should be assessed individually — as perceived by the individual, and objective.

Pain

In this embodiment, the injury, the pain appears always, is a strong character especially in the area of damage. She enhanced in any manipulation — during a conversation, a meal, in other movements. This is likely associated with rupture of the nerves or the periosteum, where there is also a large number of sensory endings, which began the inflammatory process.

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Sometimes there is so-called referred pain, when displaced bone fragments. To detect this by clicking on the chin, pain significant occur just at the site of injury.

Bleeding

Similar symptoms of a jaw fracture found in any type of injury — open or closed. In the first case the blood gets in the mouth, it is either through the skin is the result of damage to blood vessels passing through the bone itself, the periosteum, soft tissue.

If a mandibular fracture can be classified according to the closed type, the fluid cannot get out, it accumulates at the break, forming clumps.

With very heavy bleeding urgent assistance is required promptly, it indicates a rupture of a major vessel.

Swelling of the face

With a broken jaw symptoms occur with some time difference and for a number of reasons. For example, edema is formed not only because of the impact but also on different parts of the bone due to bleeding under the skin, in soft tissues. Also, there is the warming, pasty, redness of the skin at the site of injury. This happens due to the active migration through the vessels anti-inflammatory substances, which become more receptive to the liquid component of blood.

The transformation of the relief of the mandibular bone

Fractures of the mandible are rarely without complications or aggravating factors, for example, because of displacement of bone fragments, the relief of the skin at the site of injury apparently changed. Depending on the degree of displacement this can be determined visually or by palpation. Made it very carefully, you need to start with the opposite part of the jaw bone, feeling the bottom with your fingertips.

Skin damage

In case of injuries due to external effects such consequence will inevitably suffer from the skin of the face, head. Sometimes occur not only fractures of the mandible, and other bones (skull, nasal, maxillary) and the spine can be affect the spinal cord. The scrapes, scratches appear in a large percentage of cases.

Other signs

Along with the above symptoms may be other signs of a jaw fracture:

  • Reduced sensitivity in the affected area or entire face due to the rupture of the nerve endings;
  • Difficulty chewing, swallowing, speaking;
  • Ceasing language;
  • Increased salivation;
  • Dizziness, a state of shock;
  • Significant and unnatural mobility of the jaw;
  • The appearance of gaps between teeth, their mobility;
  • Difficulty closing the jaws;
  • A strong break in the mucous membrane.

Diagnostic measures

Fractures of the jaws classification is of great importance for operational medical appointments. The complexity of history is that many of these injuries occur to victims under the influence of alcohol.

In addition to the external inspection is made by radiography, computed tomography, MRI or orthopantomography, clinical and laboratory studies, will examine these events in more detail.

The definition of the clinical picture

Any injuries, including fractures of the mandible, as measured from the point of view of the objective symptoms and the results of a survey of the patient. Subjectively, it feels the pain at the site of injury and numbness of the tissue beyond its border.

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You must inform your doctor about the following side effects indicating traumatic brain injury:

  1. Headache;
  2. Nausea and vomiting;
  3. Difficulties with orientation in space;
  4. Retardation of reflexes.

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Also do conducting a study of the airway of the patient, determines the frequency of the respiratory movements, pulse.

Magnetic resonance imaging

This high precision method is capable of detecting not only a fractured jaw or other bones, but to identify the condition of the blood vessels, nerves, periarticular tissues, intra-articular disc, degree of muscle damage, the presence of hemorrhages and ruptures joints. This is the best way to see the consequences of trauma for the soft tissues with the required accuracy of the result, especially its use with contrast.

If in the patient’s body no implants or metal items, contraindications for this procedure.

Radiography

Identifies fractures of the mandible usually with the help of this simple method gives the exact result — is determined by the fact of damage, including its precise location. When research is viewed not only lower but also upper jaw in frontal and lateral projections, in the picture you can see a number of the cervical vertebrae, facial skeleton, base and roof of the skull.

So the specialist can find out where the location of the fracture and how many pieces are there, whether there is a displacement of the hemorrhage. The disadvantage of this method is the irradiation of the body, which in some cases is highly undesirable.

A more gentle method to identify fractures of the mandible, it is considered orthopantomography. It is also an x-ray taken when fixing the patient’s head and rotate it around the x-ray source and film. Possible to obtain a panoramic image of the dentition for about five minutes, showing whether there is a broken jaw, how many of them have not been damaged molars and temporomandibular joint.

Computed tomography

A clear layer-by-layer image of the investigated areas makes this type of research is most successful if the patient was not fortunate enough to break the jaw. A CT scan is prescribed in some cases:

  • If you suspect a fracture of the neighbouring bone;
  • If you have treatment of fracture of the jaw through surgery;
  • If an x-ray revealed two or more fractures and need further diagnosis;
  • When damage to dentition.

Thanks to the technique is possible to quickly obtain a clear and detailed picture reveals also the presence of traumatic brain injury, that the danger of hemorrhage is extremely important.

There is a drawback — it’s a small dose of radiation during the completion of this procedure, which is present in any radiological study.

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First aid

Everyone needs to know what to do if you suspect a jaw fracture, in the future, the victim emerged as possible complications. Based on its state, you should call an ambulance or self transport to medical facility. In this case, you can perform the following actions depending on the situation:

To stop the bleeding. To do this, use sterile tissue, pressing it to the wound, if possible, apply cold.
To remove pain. Make sure that the mouth of the victim no foreign matter, dissolve tablets, crushed into powder, in water and give to drink. Suitable Analgin, Naproxen, or Remargin, but intravenously, which is not always possible.
Immobilize the jaw. To make this possible, but only if the victim is in the making. Take a ruler, put it under the upper or lower teeth, fix the means at hand.
Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. For start is tested and ensured airway patency, further, if necessary, artificial respiration is done if no pulse, performed chest compressions.

Possible complications

Speedy access to specialists guarantee the most positive outcome in this type of injury. But there is always a probability of occurrence the following complications:

  1. Appearance between the teeth gaps which did not exist before;
  2. The appearance of malocclusion;
  3. The displacement of the molars;
  4. Deformation of the maxillofacial bones.

If the victim has occurred easy a single fracture, in surgical recourse and compliance with all regulations, the course of treatment is not more than a month. In some cases required subsequent surgical intervention for the rehabilitation of affected areas of the face.

Treatment method

Treatment of mandibular fractures includes the following steps:

  • Treatment of wounds, disinfection;
  • The alignment of the nasal septum, if necessary;
  • The combination of the bone fragments;
  • Adjustment of the jaw by means of the bus, sometimes using plates that are fixed through screws;
  • Recovery procedures.

Assigned when the broken jaw treatment takes up to six months for the bone to knit together, followed by rehabilitation. Used anti-inflammatory drugs — antibiotics, tonic, antifungal agents.

Quality fracture treatment is impossible without proper oral hygiene at home. Bus and the teeth should be thoroughly cleaned from food residues, use of antimicrobial rinses, antiseptic, helps with the soda solution.

Additionally to cure the patient is called special exercises that must be completed immediately after removing the tires. Also shown are physiotherapy, is the electromagnet operating at ultra-high frequency, low frequency pulsed magnetic impact, UV, electrophoresis of calcium in the fracture site.