Broken jaw: symptoms, treatment, pictures, how many heals?

Injuries associated with damage to the jaw bone, can lead to dangerous consequences for humans, so you should know about the symptoms and treatment of fracture of the jaw, as well as how many clamps?

Pathology occurs due to pronounced mechanical stress on the jaw, or other pathologies. Distinguish a partial lesion of bones, complete, with displacement and others. Self-medication in cases of such injuries.

Causes of broken jaw

The main causes are divided into two types: pathological and traumatic.

► Pathological, involving abnormalities of the anatomy of the jaw bone and the effects of diseases of different etiology:

  • hereditary pathology;
  • neoplasms benign and malignant;
  • osteomyelitis;
  • cysts;
  • tuberculosis;
  • treatment certain drugs;
  • the metabolic disorder;
  • the lack of food, vitamins and minerals;
  • infections, and others.

► Traumatic, including the consequences of falls, injuries, blows, injuries, heavy loads, accidents and other conditions. Often the injury is caused by:

  • driving different types of transport;
  • active lifestyle and other accidents;
  • abnormal deletion of one or more teeth;
  • under severe physical stress, e.g. in the use of firearms, a jaw injury can be complicated by the occurrence of fragments.

Symptoms

  • Pain, intense and severe, increasing when moving the jaw, chewing, talking. Pain caused by damage of a thin shell of bone is the periosteum, which is full of nerve endings. In addition, at the site of injury may develop inflammation, additionally creates pain signals. In some particularly difficult cases, the nerves themselves are damaged, pain is increased.
  • Referred pain (locally). Verified this phenomenon by the fact that pressing on the chin at the fracture site causes pain. Such a phenomenon is possible when shrapnel nerve irritation.
  • The damaged jaw is movable, the usual closing of the jaws difficult, the relief of the bones and skin changed. It can be defined as external examination and palpation, but any touch should be performed with extreme caution.
  • Teeth can become dislodged from their seats and between them can form cracks, gaps.
  • As with open and closed fractures can damage the blood vessels of the bone, surrounding soft tissues and periosteum. Depending on the location of the injury and its causes, the blood either flows into the mouth or through the skin if the fracture is open. In closed injuries blood accumulates where the impact occurred, forming clots and causing the pasty. Bleeding – cause for an immediate medical examination.
  • Swelling whole face contour, the formation of asymmetry – evidence of a broken jaw. The reason for the swelling are anti-inflammatory agents that act on the blood vessels. They, in turn, are expanding, acquiring property of greater permeability to the blood. Symptoms of edema: pasty, increase the soft tissues, redness of the skin. This may increase as part of the face in the area of the trauma and half face and whole face. Swelling is not merely broken but also bleeding.
  • Education increased secretion.
  • Tooth movement, occurs in between the cracks.
  • Ceasing language.
  • Damage to mucosal tissues, skin wounds and abrasions of different depths. Sometimes revealed and other fractures, other parts of the face and neck.
  • The patient is difficult or impossible to chew, swallow, speak.
  • At the site of injury – bruising, bruising.
  • Subjectively, the patient feels headache, dizziness, nausea, weakness.
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Photo

Types

The bones of the lower jaw is built in a horseshoe shape, it is easily crushed. The most frequent localization of fractures – the area of the coronoid process, incisors, canines, corners.

In the upper jaw the weakest in the structure of the space – closure with other bones. In mild injuries, as a rule, a displacement occurs without the formation of shards. For injuries received in the region of the upper jaw front, there is a risk of displacement of the chip down and back. Drops, indirect impacts also remains the risk of the formation of fragments and their displacement in the base of the skull.

► The classification of fractures according to the severity of the lesion:

  1. Outdoor, in which fragments of bone are displaced toward the soft tissue, tearing or damaging them (mucous membranes, muscle, skin). Often observed open fractures of the lower, rarely upper jaw. In this type a high risk of bacterial destruction of damaged tissues, medical help is provided immediately.
  2. Closed, in which damaged bone, but soft and nearby tissues are not affected. Closed types of fractures usually localized in the region of the branches of the mandible, its angle. Treated easier than open.

► Classification depending on the displacement of fragments

  1. A displaced fracture is formed under strong impact of traumatic forces. The jaw bone are displaced relative to each other and others. The offset can be as sagittal and vegetarinism, transversally.
  2. Fracture without displacement, in which a bone is damaged or divided into fragments, but they do not offset, relate to each other anatomically. It is often incomplete fractures.
  3. Sometimes in this classification include type «a brain concussion».
  4. Comminuted proceeding with the formation of several bone fragments of different sizes, randomly arranged. Characteristic of traumatic effects on the jaw. Only require treatment in hospital, the self is not acceptable.
  5. Full, in which fragments or debris (fragments) of the damaged bone are displaced, have a transverse, oblique slope.

► Full extent of the fracture:

  1. Single;
  2. Double;
  3. Multiple;
  4. Comminuted.

Treatment of complete fracture of long, complex. Incomplete fracture characterized by the presence of injuries of the jaw fragments, they, in turn, is biased.

► The types of injuries of the bones of the jaw in Lefort:

  1. Lefort — I. the boundaries of the injury through the base of the nose, then on the upper wall of the orbit and zygomatic arches. Otherwise, it is called subbasal. In the patient’s medical history includes complaints of visual split objects, pain when swallowing. This peculiar fracture swelling, typical symptoms of the eyes.
  2. Lefort — II. The boundaries of the fracture located at the base of the nose, the lower wall of the orbit, then colourplates connection. Sub-orbital type. When some part of the face numb, the tears stand out, characteristic of bleeding from the nasopharynx.
  3. Lefort — III. The boundaries of the fracture through the base of the pear-shaped hole, the bottom of the maxillary sinus. The bottom type. The patient will complain of pain, difficulty chewing, bleeding, difficulty chewing.
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► At the location of the fractures are divided into:

  1. Mid – region of the Central incisors.
  2. Tool — between the side and the first incisors.
  3. Klykovo – Fang.
  4. Mental – in the region of the mental foramen.
  5. Which restores the angle of the mandible.

Towards the point of impact the fractures are divided into direct (directly to the area of injury), indirect (on the opposite).

First aid

Medical assistance on the spot, waiting for qualified, should be provided as quickly as possible. The basic rules are:

  • to provide complete rest to the patient in a stationary state;
  • to restore respiration (CPR if necessary);
  • offer analgesics;
  • to remove all the excess out of the mouth;
  • to disinfect wounds;
  • to stop the bleeding;
  • if you have minimal knowledge to try to perform the alignment of the bones.

The broken jaw treatment

Any kind of trauma, both upper and lower jaws, treated in the surgical Department. In complicated cases, shows the operation.

The patient at admission anesthetized, he bandage, diagnose (x-ray, CT, MRI), rebuild bone structure with sutures, staples, plates. Implants are installed, if there is no possibility to gather together the bones of the patient. Treatment includes antibiotic therapy, physiotherapy. The main methods of treatment – splinting and grafting.

Splinting

The bone fragments are adjusted using a special plastic device. At the turn of the one side face of the device will be imposed on the one hand, when complicated – with two with the addition of special rings and hooks.

Trauma of both jaws, complicated by displacement of the fragments, superimposition of the tire is performed on both jaws (claw method). The main purpose of the method is ensuring the immobility in tissue healing. Treatment can take up to 2 months. Before take off tires, of patients perform x-rays to ensure the fusion of tissues.

Bypass surgery

Method is used in complicated cases. During this procedure, fixation of injured bone fragments special tires consisting of the toe hinges and rubber maxillary rods (bus Tigerstedt).

The method can further commit to reduce the load on the patient’s bone.

Food

Even for a simple fracture, the patient is experiencing difficulties with food. Depending on the severity of the injury the patient to select the method of supply support measures.

  1. Sippy cups with tubes used in the absence of the teeth. It is injected directly into the stomach. Food should be moderately warm, be fed small portions, fractional. Method is suitable for the home environment.
  2. The probes used strictly in hospitals in the first week. The probe is inserted into the stomach.
  3. IV fluids for parenteral ingestion, if the victim is unconscious.
  4. Enemas for nutrition used in unconscious States with difficulties to feed the patient through veins.
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What can you eat when damaged?:

  • high-calorie meats, diluted with milk or broth in a shabby;
  • baby food;
  • dairy and fermented milk drinks;
  • broths;
  • puréed soups;
  • fruit, vegetables, mashed potatoes and souffle;
  • cereal, divorced milk.

Important: the diet should compensate for the daily needs of the patient in calories.

Video: how to eat with the broken jaw? Personal experience of searching. On his channel you can find also other tips.

The consequences

Without the unpleasant consequences of a broken jaw, usually do not pass. As a result of injuries can occur:

  • asymmetry and deformation of facial features;
  • loss of teeth and their movement, with loose teeth when chewing, and at rest;
  • malocclusion;
  • the gaps between the teeth;
  • the psychological discomfort of the patient when the jaw crunches.

Complications can be avoided with timely treatment to the professionals.

Rehabilitation

Recovery after surgery or treatment includes physiotherapy, physiotherapy, oral hygiene.

Therapeutic exercise is assigned not earlier than in a month after removing the tire. It is important to restore masticatory function, swallowing, facial expressions.

Effective physical treatments such as exposure to electromagnetic fields of different frequencies, pulsed magnetic therapy, ultraviolet irradiation, electrophoresis, applying ice, microwave therapy, paraffin therapy, infrared radiation, massage the neck area.

Further questions

► How much time fused fracture of the mandible and maxilla?

In the absence of complications, such as traumatic osteomyelitis, inflammatory processes, more hairline fractures heal from 30 to 45 days. Injuries of the lower jaw is often more complex than the top. Bone regeneration can take up to 60 days.

► Does it hurt to remove the tires after a broken jaw?

The process of getting rid of tires is less painful than the development of muscles and tissues after injury and immobilization. During rehabilitation muscle is partially turned up rigidity, the patient will experience pain while eating, swallowing, speech.

► How to identify a fractured jaw or injury?

Common signs of trauma – bruising, pain, swelling, bruising. This is when the fracture is difficult it, pain is more pronounced, the patient feels a clear weakness until he lost consciousness. An accurate diagnosis will install only the surgeon after x-ray.

► How many are in the hospital?

The treatment time in the hospital differently in different fractures. Complicated fractures with displacement, surgery will require a course of inpatient treatment up to 4 weeks.