Candidiasis of the mouth in adults and children: treatment, photo

The oral candidiasis is common in adults and children and brings a lot of problems. Treatment of disease when detected at early stages is not difficult, but the outward signs and photos of the affected mucous membranes look scary.

Most susceptible to candidiasis infants under one year of age. To catch the disease they can still in the hospital from the mother or from the medical staff. In childhood the pathology treated quite easily, without causing serious disturbances in the body.

What is it?

Candidiasis is a disease of the oral cavity caused by Candida that manifests with the following symptoms:

  1. White cheesy plaque on the mucosa.
  2. Uncomfortable sensations such as dryness, tingling or burning sensation and pain.
  3. Hyperemia.
  4. Swelling of the soft tissues of the oral cavity.
  5. Shallow ulcerations.

Yeast Candida inhabit not only the mouth but also on the skin, in the digestive tract and vulva many people, but in the normal state of the immune system, they do not manifest themselves and do not cause the development of yeast infection.

Causes

Half of the population in the mouth are the Candida fungi because they are representatives of the natural microflora, and their pathogenic effect only when exceeding the permissible concentration. Etiology of candidiasis have been well studied, allowing for correct therapy and to develop means of prevention.

There are many reasons why there is growth of fungal colonies and developing thrush:

  • reducing the protective properties of the immune system is observed in case of insufficiency of the immune Taurus during diseases. This occurs when endocrine disorders, tuberculosis lesion, HIV infection, hepatitis, and gastritis with low acidity;
  • the change in hormone levels occurs during pregnancy and lactation period;
  • diabetes mellitus of the second type – a yeast infection in the mouth is one of the first diagnostic symptoms of this disease of the adrenal glands;
  • regular use of medicines – corticosteroid and cytotoxic drugs affect the immune status and lowered protective reaction of the organism;
  • prolonged antibiotic treatment, prolonged use of antibiotics helps to remove not only pathogenic, but also the natural microflora. Candida resistant to this group of drugs, so they begin to multiply unchecked;
  • vitamin deficiency – low intake of vitamin b, C, nicotinic acid, and their small synthesis on the reason of dysbacteriosis;
  • bad habits – cigarettes, alcohol and drugs lead to low immunity;
  • reception KOK – oral contraception makes changes in natural hormone levels, which can lead to multiplication of Candida fungi;
  • treatment of malignancies – chemotherapy and radiation therapy greatly reduces the protective abilities of the organism, and on the background of a weakened immune system often develops a yeast infection of the mouth;
  • chronic injury – regular biting of the soft tissues of the mouth from the sharp edges of fillings or crowns;
  • acrylic dentures – often there is an Allergy to plastic, which leads to ulcerations in the mucosa, which easily penetrates the fungi of the genus Candida.

The symptoms of candidiasis

Clinical manifestations of yeast infection depend on the age of the patient, the shape and course of the disease, presence of comorbidities, use of medications and other factors.

There are common symptoms for acute stages of candidiasis:

  • white plaques – areas of the mouth covered with light gray patina, causing the disease called «thrush»;
  • bleeding – after removal of the curd plaque, soft tissues beneath ulcerate, become reddish, diagnosed external signs of inflammation;
  • mouth odor is caused due to difficulty in conduct of quality oral health;
  • hyperthermia – increase in temperature to subfebrile values is a reaction and a symptom of the body to fight fungal infection;
  • discomfort on the affected areas of the mucous membrane is marked itching, tingling and pain;
  • the feeling of a foreign body in the throat – if candidiasis spreads to the tonsils, it is difficult to swallow and eating, and causes a feeling of compression;
  • zaedy – cracks in the corners of the mouth are more characteristic of thrush in children, the affected areas are bleeding and injured in all the movements of the lips.
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Photo

Form

Features of the disease and the characteristics differ in different forms. Manifestations depend on the immune status of the patient’s age and concomitant diseases. The type of flow of the pathological process there are the following kinds.

  1. Acute pseudomembranous.
  2. Acute atrophic.
  3. Chronic hyperplastic.
  4. Chronic atrophic.

Acute pseudomembranous

The most common form of the disease, which is popularly often called «thrush» because of the similarities by their appearance gray-white patches with a cottage cheese or milk. Most often the disease affects young children, the treatment of which is easy enough, if time it to start.

In the absence of proper level of rehabilitation of the oral cavity increasing the area of the lesion, whitish plaques merge with each other, and at their removal opens eroded surface of the mucous membrane. Sometimes cheesy plaque so much that it covered the entire back of the tongue, giving it an unnatural color. If the process involves the deeper layers of soft tissues, the affected areas take a brown color and bleed.

Characteristic symptoms:

  • discomfort in the mouth increases the time of eating, which the children refuse it;
  • disturbed the routine of the day, the kids have trouble sleeping, become Moody and restless;
  • you may receive hyperthermia up to 38-39 °C;
  • the child is formed Candida Zayed road, covered with dirty-gray patina, resulting from the habit to suck a finger or toy;
  • adult candidiasis is a concomitant pathology in diabetes, tumors and blood diseases.

Acute atrophic

Should be differentiated from manifestations of Allergy in the mouth that occur when wearing dentures from acrylic, and coated metal elements subthalamic designs.

Patient complaints and symptoms of the disease have distinctive features:

  • the patient noted discomfort in the mouth and hyperemia of the mucous membranes caused by the development of xerostomia;
  • when the disease takes the language, he acquires a crimson-red hue, it becomes shiny and dry. Located on the back of the papillae filamentous forms atrophied;
  • pathological lesions penetrate deeply into the folds of language, which are difficult to cleanse – the Candida colony they seem to merge with the soft tissue, forming one whole.

Chronic hyperplastic

It is characterized pricefixing thick plaque, having the form of a white-yellow dense peas, a favorite place of localization which is the back of the tongue and vault of the sky. Differential diagnosis is carried out with lichen planus, and leukoplakia.

The patient complains of:

  • burning sensation, tingling, and itching in the mouth;
  • spontaneous pain;
  • a dense film of a pale yellow color that covers mucous membranes.

When you try to remove the plaque causes pain, scraping almost no results, this opens erythematous bleeding surface of tongue and hard palate.

Chronic atrophic

Most often develops in elderly people who wear in the oral cavity removable laminar dentures made of plastic. They noted the dryness and irritation of the mucous membranes. The plaque contains a small amount, however, it is difficult to remove.

The disease is characterized by pathological manifestations.

  1. Fungal zaedy.
  2. Eroded areas underneath the prosthetic bed.
  3. Papillomatosis.
  4. Atrophy of the papillae of the tongue.

This kind of candidiasis, it is sufficient just to distinguish from other types by the triad of inflammation: affects the tongue, corners of the mouth and the palate.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is made on the basis of anamnestic data, patient complaints, clinical examination and laboratory test results. To identify the causative agent of the disease, the dentist should take a scraping from the tongue and other areas covered with bloom. If under the microscope revealed the fungi of the genus Candida in large numbers, the diagnosis of disease is not difficult.

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In order that the analysis was valid, it is necessary to follow some rules.

  1. To take a scraping on an empty stomach.
  2. The patient should not brush your teeth and rinse your mouth before performing manipulation.
  3. On the eve to withdraw from carbohydrate food, not to cause growth of the colonies.

Differential diagnosis is carried out between forms of candidiasis, and lichen planus, leukoplakia, allergic manifestations, stomatitis and syphilis.

Treatment of oral candidiasis in adults

In order to get rid of a fungal contamination of the oral cavity, therapeutic course should consist not only of medicines, but also include rinsing, correction of diet, intake of vitamins b, C, PP, and appropriate care of your teeth and gums. Before you start taking antifungal drugs, you need to visit a doctor to determine the form of the disease and selection of treatment.

Treatment of candidiasis is based on aggregate effects of drugs for General and local use.

For oral administration doctors usually prescribed tablet form.

  1. Nystatin pills eat 4-6 times a day after meals, they should be pre-crushed or put under the tongue, due to the fact that the drug is poorly absorbed in the digestive tract. The drug lasts 10 days.
  2. Fluconazole is a strong antifungal agent that is used daily 1 times a day 200-400 mg.
  3. Diflucan therapy course lasts 1-2 weeks, during which capsules are taken once a day at 50-100mg.
  4. Pimafucin – active antifungal agent, having a devastating effect on various strains of Candida. Medicine should four times a day for weeks.
  5. 2% potassium iodine – appointed 15 ml by mouth after meals to reduce dry mouth and anti Candida.
  6. Amphoglucaminum will be scheduled twice daily at 200 IU.

To drugs that provide local impact, include lozenges, gels, ointments and mouthwash:

  • caramel Declin – candy should be placed on the tongue or in the cheek, and as long as you can hold it in this position without producing movements of the tongue;
  • Lizobakt – sucking tablets which should be consumed after prior removal of the plaque;
  • Furatsilin – is available in compressed form, which must be dissolved in water and the resulting suspension rinse your mouth 6-7 times a day, every day;
  • boric acid – 2% suspense to irrigate the tongue and palate, 3-4 times a day;
  • borax – liquid used in concentrations of 2-5% for rinsing of the mucous membrane;
  • baking soda is a remedy that helps to eliminate fungus and fights inflammation in the mouth;
  • Clotrimazole is a drug available in two forms: ointment and solution. If you use cream you should first rinse your mouth to remove part of the pathogenic microflora, and then a clean finger, apply on the affected area;
  • Amphotericin – liniment for the treatment of fungus. Required coursework use for seven days.

How to treat candidiasis in children?

When it detects the child has a whitish coating, you must contact your pediatrician or dentist to determine the causes of changes in the mucous membrane. The principle of treatment of candidiasis in children is similar to adult therapy, but there are some features.

  1. In the treatment of the newborn are only used medications for local effects (ointment Amphotericin, Nystatin, rinse with baking soda or potassium permanganate solution).
  2. If your baby is breastfed, then the reorganization shall be the mother, not to risk re-infecting the baby through breast.
  3. The use of tablets among children is appropriate from the age when he will learn to swallow them. If necessary, the treatment of infants, it should be crushed and mixed with water to form a slurry.
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For systemic use, drugs Nystatin, levorin and Milgaten permitted from birth, but fluconazole and Ketoconazole on attainment of two years. The dosage is determined individually by a doctor.

Special attention is paid not only to medical effects of drugs but also change of diet. You should exclude sugar-containing foods, fresh pastries, chocolates and sweet drinks, because carbohydrates are a nutrient substrate for reproduction of the fungus. Enter in your daily menu more fresh vegetables and fruits, meat, dairy products, and vitamins of group B.

Folk remedies

Completely abandon the drugs are not worth it, but to speed up the healing process of the mucous membrane at home using herbal medicine:

  • a decoction of chamomile dry inflorescences pour boiling water and leave at room temperature for half an hour. After infusion of strain and rinse your mouth 3 times a day after meals;
  • water infusion of marigold is a dry collection to put in a thermos, pouring boiling water, cover tightly and leave for half an hour. To do mouth trays as required;
  • viburnum fruit fresh juice to wipe the areas due to fungal infection;
  • broth of oak bark – tablespoon of the mixture pour in the fireproof dish, pour water and put on fire. After boiling, boil for 5-10 minutes;
  • soda a suspension of 7 g of sodium carbonate dissolved in 100 ml of liquid and RUB the bruised area.

Video: oral candidiasis — treatment of folk remedies.

Diet

The role of nutrition in the treatment of candidiasis of the oral cavity is large. If you do not abandon certain products, the reorganization will be delayed for a longer period, since sugar and carbohydrates are the nutrient medium for reproduction of fungi Candide, and spicy and salty foods can irritate the mucosa and hinder healing.

For a more rapid elimination of the disease in the period of therapy will have to abandon certain products.

  1. Bakery products.
  2. Sugar.
  3. Pastries containing yeast.
  4. Smoked sausages.
  5. Spices with a strong taste.
  6. Salty, spicy and hot food.

In order to avoid relapse after recovery to stick to the diet recommended for another 1-2 months.

Prevention

To prevent the occurrence of disease must be guided by the following tips:

  • ensure regular and complete care for the oral cavity;
  • to follow a proper diet;
  • every six months to visit the dentist for prophylactic cleanings and treatment;
  • limit contact with ill people.

To avoid the appearance of candidiasis in infants should be treated with bottles, pacifiers and toys. Nursing mothers it is necessary to maintain hygiene of the breast.

Further questions

► Code for ICD-10

Encrypted as candidiasis B37.8.

► Can the honey in the oral candidiasis?

On the permissibility to use this product in food for thrush no clear opinion, but most doctors do not recommend eating it, as it applies to products that enhance the growth of the fungus.

► What not to eat with candidiasis?

Want to forgo the hot and irritating foods, so as not to injure the affected soft tissues of the oral cavity, and also to eliminate all kinds of sweets.

 

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