Caries in stage of spots: primary caries treatment
Caries in stage of spot can occur in any person, regardless of age. It manifests itself on the tooth surface malovydne white and dark brown spots.
There are two forms of initial caries:
- white spot on the enamel (the active stage);
- stage dark spots (stable form).
The anatomical structure of the initial caries
District enamel with white spot is characterized in cross section a triangular shape, a dark spot is trapezoidal. The base of the problem area, its widest part is on the enamel surface of the tooth, and the apex of the triangle or the narrow part of the trapezoid is directed to dentinogenesis connection. In the focal region is divided into four zones:
- Surface area. Its thickness up to 20 microns. The structure of enamel is preserved, but the swelling and dissolution of pellicule. This layer contains mineral components in larger quantities compared to the intact enamel.
- The subsurface zone is an area in which there has been a marked demineralization. The amount of mineral matter can be reduced by 20 %, microhardness decrease, permeability increase, and the volumetric value of microdistrict to increase to 25 %.
- Hypomineralization area. The changes are manifested in a smaller number. The volume of microdistrict up to 4%, the microhardness decreases slightly below normal values.
- Hypermineralization area. It covers the area of hypermineralization from dentinogenesis connection. The area is a pronounced chronic course of caries. Microhardness and volume of microdistrict corresponds to the values of the first zone
The description of the initial stages of caries
The initial stage of tooth decay easily determined by a pronounced white spot on the tooth surface. The natural gloss of the enamel does not disappear, but the plaque with a thick layer catches the eye.
Caries in the stage of white spot often occurs due to the activity of pathogenic microorganisms. Food residues on the surface of bones processed by bacteria. And this leads to the formation of acid and gradually to the destruction of the enamel layer. Therefore, poor performance hygienic actions in the oral cavity is the main culprit of caries disease.
Initial caries occurs because of an incorrect diet with insufficient calcium and fluorine, which causes thinning of the enamel layer. A thin layer of enamel reacts to stimuli, especially when the macula, located at the neck of the bone formation under the gums. In such a situation it is better to begin immediately remineralizing therapy.
The lack of treatment of carious pathology on the stage of the white spot leads to the formation of phase dark spots. Sometimes it is due to contact with bacteria in the enamel pores and the continuation of their work inside. Getting rid of the carious condition with a dark spot is more complicated than the initial stage. Use the dissection of bone formation and covered with a seal.
Initial caries is diagnosed during a dental examination. The specialist performed the removal of plaque, treatment of enamel with hydrogen peroxide, rinsing the mouth and drying the surface of teeth. Under the influence of these manipulations, pathological places become bright white shade and noticeable on the background of healthy tooth surfaces. In inaccessible areas of diagnostics is the method of vital staining with 1-2% solution of methylene blue with subsequent comparison okrasilsya a parcel on a special scale. The affected extent is determined by the brightness of the staining of pathological sections.
On the tooth surfaces most susceptible to contacting, diagnosing initial caries is the method of transillumination. This method consists in the appearance of shadows in the place of the spot while passing through the tooth of the light beam.
Detection of loss of the mineral components with high precision is the method of determining the ohmic resistance of the enamel and the method of light scattering. But these methods require special equipment, and they are only used for research purposes.
Areas of caries in stage of spot difficult to detect in very remote places. It is therefore necessary to take preventive checkups at least once annually.
Method of silvering
Treatment of primary caries silver is more often used in primary teeth. Rather, it is used for prevention of dental caries. Adults the procedure for silvering is carried out in severe mental disorders.
In the silvering process the tooth surface is treated with a solution of concentrated silver nitrate. During the course of the chemical reaction, the recovery of silver in the surface tooth enamel to metallic silver. It is deposited in very small pores and will not disappear.
Using the bactericidal action of silver formed protective conditions against bacteria that cause plaque and tooth decay. In some cases, tooth plating is carried out with repetition to 2 times annually.
The positive side of the method:
- the lack of negative reaction toddler;
- method is suitable even children aged years;
- low cost;
- if performed correctly, of action tooth decay stops.
- changes in the color of teeth;
- cannot be used for deep lesions;
- the low effective action or lack of it.
The main nuisance is the aesthetic side from the manipulation. Blackened teeth visible to the naked eye. Aesthetic defect may have a negative psychological impact on the child.
Method of deep fluoridation and remineralization of enamel
Treatment of caries in the stage spots deep fluoridation and remineralization is the restoration of lost mineral components in the enamel. These dental technology is effective in focal demineralization in the stage of white spot. A dark spot is not restored to the desired state, but the process of caries development is suspended.
Remineralization therapy is the introduction into the composition of the enamel of ions of calcium, phosphorus and fluorine application method or by using electrophoresis. In the process of mineral substances penetrate in places with weak enamel and restore the region having a disturbed crystal lattice.
Deep fluoridation is a treatment of tooth enamel with fluoride. Using this procedure, the enamel composition increases the content of inert fluorapatite, which is resistant to acids.
Each procedure has its own benefit and effective rate. Often it is achieved for the 3-4 week period, and sometimes require a course lasting six months or more.
Technology application Icon
Icon technology is a method of infiltration and allows to neutralize the initial caries without the use of the drill. The first dentist cleans the teeth from plaque and Tartar, as well as assessing the development of caries. If you want the procedure, the doctor applies on the dried tooth surface with a special gel with hydrochloric acid in small concentrations. This remedy dissolves the top layer of enamel, healthy-looking appearance only. Inside the crystal lattice is damaged because of the decrease of the mineral constituents.
After acid washing and drying the surface layer is payable infiltrant. It fills all the pores in the structure. Further, infiltrant parts are polymerized using a UV lamp. The result is a seal polished discs and brushes.
This technique can be used by children from three years old instead of the method of silvering.
In some cases, the technology Icon use is not worth it. When bare dentine, enamel is very thin or when developed decay method is not suitable. This technique is effective only on the outer enamel layer and directly on the initial caries dental tissues.
Filling in initial caries
Dark carious spot, unlike the white more difficult to cure using the techniques of remineralization. The method of infiltration is also not appropriate for all situations applicable.
A great alternative is grinding and subsequent filling of carious spots. Depending on the state, boron may not be used. The dentist uses special wheels, brushed or polishing head. If boron is used, the duration of its use will be short-lived, as the depth of carious defect at the initial stage is small.
After cleaning the tooth from the carious education in this area is placed the filling material. Often the dentist will decide which composition to use. For teeth the front of visit is often used svetootverdevayuschih fillings.
The application of modern orthopedic techniques
Currently, huge popularity was received porcelain veneers and Lumineers. The first is a porcelain plate in the form of plates on the visible part of the tooth. They help to enhance the shape and color of the tooth and also have a protective effect.
Lumineers thickness is very thin. Their fixation is not required prior grinding of teeth, in some cases, minimal grinding.
But despite the effectiveness of these technologies is not recommended to use with individual spots in good General condition of the teeth.
Caries in stage of spot can be treated at home, but after initial consultation at the dentist. Only a specialist is able to assess the situation and to evaluate the effectiveness of such action.
Widely available currently, there are special funds, which is consistent with the saturation of the enamel of the teeth missing minerals. Among them include:
- Remineralizing gel ROCS Medical Minerals. The tool is saturated with calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Fluorine in the structure of the gel is missing. The tool is highly effective as a preventive measure. Gel returns the gloss of tooth enamel and caries in the stage spots. The tool approved for use by infants. If slow decay recommended 4 courses of 10-12 procedures every year. Indications for its use are enamel hypoplasia, fluorosis, wearing braces and the period after teeth whitening.
- Dental gel Elmex. Its action is to the remineralisation of transverse section areas of the enamel, which contributes to the prevention and treatment of caries. Among the components of the gel include fluoride. Therefore, the remedy is contraindicated in cases of fluorosis. Elmex allowed to use six.
- Remineralizing gel Amazing White Minerals. Includes fluoride and its action is similar to Elmex gel.
The main purpose of the application of these dental remedies is providing additional minerals of the surface layer of enamel.
Preventive action at the initial dental caries
The most effective way to prevent tooth decay is regular and proper oral hygiene. Even 2 disposable cleaning enough teeth to their healthy state. The bacteria that cause tooth decay lower the pH in your mouth 15-20 minutes after eating the food, which includes sugar. In case if you don’t rinse your mouth after meals, after 20 minutes, the tooth enamel will start to be ill-acids.
Proper use of dental floss, the use of chewing gum after a meal, and a choice of toothpaste and brushes play a huge role in the prevention of carious lesions.
All the preventive measures are divided into exogenous and endogenous.
To endogenous methods include:
- a strengthened immune system;
- receiving adequate dosage of vitamins;
- the correct diet;
- the stress reduction effect;
- supplementation with minerals lacking in the body.
The exogenous measures aimed at the prevention of caries include, along with oral hygiene, and more:
- sealing dental fissures;
- the use of conservative therapy in the preventive purposes;
- professional hygiene of the oral cavity;
- learning how to care for teeth.
Timely detection of dental caries in stage of spots and treatment to prevent serious consequences and huge financial costs.
Compliance with all preventive actions will help to reduce the risk of disease, regardless of age. After all, dental health, and, consequently, the whole body depends on the responsible attitude of man to himself.