Chronic stomatitis: in adults causes and treatment

Chronic thrush is found in adults and in children. There are many factors that influence its occurrence. And they, the reasons, play a crucial role in the treatment of this disease. That causes abnormal oral mucosa and how to fix it, we’ll cover in this article.
Chronic stomatitis — recurrent inflammation of the oral mucosa. The transition in the chronic form is associated with the absence of a qualified first-line treatment of acute course of the disease.

Symptoms of the disease

The indicator is the presence of painful ulcers on the mucosa in the oral cavity. They can be on lips, cheeks, tongue, palate. Appearance may vary. They are different in shape (round or oval), by color (gray or white), but usually red around the perimeter and covered with a gray film.
In addition, ulcers are extremely painful, stomatitis is characterized by:

  • an increase in temperature;
  • lymph nodes are enlarged;
  • increased salivation;
  • the occurrence of blooms of white or yellow on the tongue;
  • migraine and irritability;
  • a decrease in appetite.

The appearance of ulcers is preceded by the redness of individual sections that swell and forms a blister.

Common causes of the disease

Stomatitis appears with the weakening of the body, which consequence:

  1. lack of vitamins and minerals;
  2. hormonal disorders;
  3. nervous tension, stress, depression;
  4. anemia;
  5. the metabolic disorders;
  6. pathology of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, colitis, ulcers);
  7. diseases of the heart or blood vessels;
  8. tumor;
  9. the lack of hygiene both personal and of the oral cavity;
  10. traumatic factors;
  11. a violation of the diet;
  12. taking certain medicines;
  13. bad habits.

Chronic disease causes a variety. In each case, the localization and the shape of the rashes will be different. Each subsequent relapse may be longer than the previous one, and the interval between them will decrease. The disease lasts for years with exacerbations and remission stages.

Classification of disease depending on the causes

Thrush in adults can be the result of:

Injury. Occurs as a result of injury to the mucosa. It can be obtained from the chipped tooth, the prosthesis is installed incorrectly, from the great seal of Tartar or to be the result of a burn (thermal or chemical). If the wound is not infected, the disease passes without the formation of ulcers and aft. There is swelling and redness of the injured area.
Infection. The causative agents of the disease are bacteria, viruses or fungi. Which can get in the mouth as from the environment, and to be due to internal infection.
The viruses causing the sores . Chickenpox, rubella, influenza, measles, diphtheria, herpes, hepatitis. Typically, a viral disease characterized by a deterioration of General health and rise in temperature.
Bacterial stomatitis. Can be a complication of sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, pneumonia. Patients feel unwell and noted a mucous-purulent discharge.
Fungal. Provoked by fungi of the genus Condida and occurs as a result of changes in local microflora due to the decrease of immunity.
Allergies. Can be caused by external allergens and drugs. The treatment is to detect and eliminate protein causing an immune reaction.
Serious systemic diseases and their treatment. Can occur when cancers, diabetes, acquired immune deficiency and many other disorders. In this case it is a consequence of the decrease in immunity due to disease or its treatment.
Poisoning. Appears in cases of poisoning by toxins, chemicals, salts of heavy metals. There is pigmentation of the gums and prolonged healing of the ulcer, signs of General toxicity.
Catarrhal. Develops as a result of neglecting a patient the rules of hygiene.

The types of chronic stomatitis

Depending on the causes and manifestations there are several types of chronic stomatitis in adults:


According to studies, this disease accounts for 5% of all pathologies, manifested in the oral cavity. Feature of the disease is appearance of so-called aft.

AFTA — painful ulcer on the mucous membrane with a diameter of 3-5 mm. It has a rounded shape, the edges of crimson, completely covered in a white film. Observed blanching and swelling of the entire mucous membrane. Aphthae cause great pain, especially during meals, and articulation.

The cause of are diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and liver, rheumatism, viral infections, allergies, heredity, bacteria, in particular staph.

In most cases the ulcer is single and takes place within 7-10 days but can persist for a month. Then in its place there is redness that persists for a long time.

The peculiarity of this disease the ability to remission. Isolated grade 3 stomatitis:

  1. easy. Ulcer appears in one and not more than once every couple of years;
  2. moderate. Ulcers, there are a few with a frequency of 1-3 times per year;
  3. heavy. Multiple appearance aft at least 4 times a year.

Ulcerative-necrotic stomatitis Vincent

The causative agent of the disease is in the mouth of each person. But with colds, infections, mechanical injuries or mucosa, poor hygiene pathogen aktiviziruyutsya and starts the development of the disease. Ulcerative-necrotic stomatitis may be the consequence of diseases such as leukemia, pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, food poisoning or heavy metals, systemic diseases, immune deficiency.

The disease begins with the deterioration of health, fever, migraine. Appears bleeding and soreness of the gums, feeling of dryness and burning sensation in the mouth.
In the second stage, the General condition is deteriorating, increases pain, which makes eating and brushing your teeth almost impossible. If the ulcer is located near the wisdom tooth, the patient can not wide open the mouth (lockjaw).

Initially, the expression starts in the region where there are local irritants, e.g., crowns, dental stones, dental caries. Gradually spread to the adjacent mucosa. Then the gum tissue is destroyed (necrosis) and covered with bloom.

In severe disease the temperature of the patient may rise to 40⁰ C, and ulcers comes to muscle tissue or tendons, bones.

To reduce the pain is local treatment of lesions of the antiseptic and pain relieving drugs. Antibiotics and anti-anaerobic microflora in the mouth. Using surgical treatment removes the dead tissue from the gums.


This kind of stomatitis develops in almost half of patients using full removable dentures. Occurs in places of contact of the prosthesis with a mucous membrane. Appears bleeding ulcers, and ulcus decubitalis. Pathology occurs as a result of pressure on the tissue, with a consequent deterioration in them metabolic processes, and the result is death of cells (necrosis).

Constant trauma can lead to the development of papilloma is a neoplasm of the mucous membrane, which protrudes above the surrounding tissue.
An allergic form of this disease is often associated with sensitivity to the components of the acrylic plastic of the denture. Chronic prosthetic stomatitis caused by bacteria, is the result of a lack of hygienic instilled while using the prosthesis and care for it.


Caused by yeast-like fungi. Develops in response to uncontrolled and prolonged intake of antibiotics, which destroy not only pathogenic microorganisms but also the entire flora. Also causes enhanced growth of pathogenic bacteria can be diabetes mellitus or immunodeficiency.
A feature of this form of stomatitis is not only painful sores, but the appearance of a white cheesy patches on the tongue. This plaque is colonies of bacteria. To remove it is simple enough, but it reappears very quickly. The coating is inflammation.

Chronic stomatitis smoker

Observed in smokers with the experience. Occurs as a result of constant irritation by tar and nicotine. The characteristic symptom is mucous bluish-brown color, on which is formed a whitish coating. The Horny layer of the epidermis of the sky when it thickens greatly, which affects the metabolism in tissues and sensitivity.


In chronic stomatitis smoker increases the risk of malignant tumors in the oral cavity.


Is caused by a virus of usual of herpes. The problem is that to date herpes is considered incurable. So it appears again when the body’s immune system is weakened. Exacerbation occurs more frequently in autumn and spring, as it can be triggered by hypothermia, colds, diseases of the nasopharynx.
There are two forms of the disease:

  • easy. Occurs up to 2 times per year, with this little sores;
  • heavy. Exacerbations occur more than 6 times a year. A lot of the rashes that lead to inflammation and edema of the mucosa, there is increased salivation.

Symptoms of herpes stomatitis:

  1. poor health;
  2. temperature rise;
  3. intoxication;
  4. inflammation of the lymph nodes.


Chronic stomatitis is treated by removing the factors that caused the disease. Necessarily by a professional cleaning of the oral cavity, eliminate foci of infection, for example, caries treatment or removal of Tartar on the teeth, and in case of impossibility to restore the tooth, its removal.

Assigned application of drugs to the affected areas, the treatment antibacterial agent or agents. The patient may be prescribed immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-allergic treatment. May be assigned to physiotherapy, for example, UVI, phonophoresis, laser therapy.

At home, you can apply herbal teas based on calendula, chamomile or oak bark. These plants have anti-inflammatory properties. Can be disinfected ulcers chlorhexidine, solution of potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide. Self-treatment of stomatitis medicines is unacceptable, as only after investigation can determine the cause of the inflammation.


Since the choice of treatment depends on the origin of the disease is necessary to reliably determine the cause of chronic stomatitis. For this prescribed:

  • bacteriological examination;
  • PCR of scrapings from the site of localization of inflammation;
  • biochemistry of the blood;
  • the definition of the immunogram;
  • tests on the immune response.

For elimination of systemic diseases will need to visit specialists:

  • gastroenterologist;
  • otolaryngologist;
  • the allergist;
  • endocrinologist.


Prevention of many dental diseases, including chronic stomatitis include:

  1. observance of rules of personal hygiene;
  2. proper care of the oral cavity: use a suitable brush and paste, dental floss and mouthwash, tongue scraper, special brushes;
  3. a professional inspection of your teeth and gums every six months;
  4. timely treatment of caries, removal of calculus and plaque, as well as defects that can injure the mucosa;
  5. not to give the teeth an extra load in the form of cutting or cracking hard objects that can injure the mucosa, for example, walnut shells;
  6. eat a balanced diet.

Chronic stomatitis is a disease that brings a lot of inconvenience and pain, and eventually can cause tooth loss, gum disease, soft tissue and bone. So do not delay visiting the dentist, and when the first symptoms start the treatment.

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