Clasp prosthesis for the upper jaw: dentures
Restoration of the upper jaw is necessary in clinical situations when the patient during the examination of the oral cavity revealed a violation of the chewing function of the jaw system, resulting from partial or full tooth loss. Additional discomfort in this patient, due to a violation of the aesthetics of a smile. Technology dental orthotics help to solve such problems, fully restoring the dentition by means of an adequate prosthesis.
The pros and cons of dentures
Sometimes in the course of the consultation the patient in order to eliminate gaps in the maxillary arch, the dentist detects the presence of contraindications to exercise prosthesis through the fabrication and subsequent fixation of fixed dental bridges. In this case, the patient is recommended a removable denture.
The advantages of this type of prosthesis
The technological development of the orthopedic industry, modern dentistry offers several positive aspects, if the patient will choose a removable denture for the upper jaw as an option for replacing a missing tooth:
- There is a choice between several types of prosthetic constructions, as in the upper jaw there is sufficient area for the location of the denture base.
- Because when placed in the oral cavity ready design relies not only on available maxillary row of teeth, but also – on hard and soft palate, the patient can be sure of its reliable fixing.
- In clinical cases when there is a need for partial completion of missing teeth, a dentist-orthopedist achieves uniform distribution of masticatory load between artificial and own teeth of the patient.
- In situations where the patient has a complete absence of upper teeth, when performing removable dentures the chewing function of the jaw system is fully restored.
- After the completion of the adaptation period, the patient does not feel any discomfort during the operation of the prosthesis.
- In all clinical cases, irrespective of the form of manufactured orthopedic construction is a full restoration of the aesthetics of the mouth.
The disadvantages of dentures
Despite the considerable number of advantages of operation of such prostheses, there are certain negative aspects of their application:
- Getting used to a denture takes time, and sometimes the adaptation period ends just after 2 weeks.
- In patients with a pronounced gag reflex can cause some problems in the use of such structures.
Depending on the number of missing teeth in the maxillary arch, the dentist makes the choice to use between the following types of abutments:
- Full dentures for the upper jaw. The indication for its use is the complete absence of teeth in maxillary arch. Depending on the personal preferences of the patient, it can be made of acrylic plastic or nylon.
- Partial dentures for the upper jaw. Is the most common type of substitution structures in orthopaedic practice and its use is shown in partial violation of the dentition. Among all the available options the most physiological operation is a partial denture on the upper jaw.
- Conditionally removable denture. In this case, the denture of the upper jaw is carried out through the manufacture of structures, which are fixed on abutment teeth with specially made mounts.
The use of curved structures
Among the many varieties of removable partial models of clasp dentures on the upper jaw in the top position. This is due to a number of their advantages in most clinical cases to significantly reduce the adjustment period to them in patients and eliminate the discomfort. From a technical point of view the basis of such prostheses is an arc, made of alloy, which is fixed to the plastic base, simulating the gingival tissue. The artificial teeth are placed on a plastic base.
When the valid operation of a partial denture
Curved removable dentures to patients in the following clinical cases:
- the patient has a large number of gaps in the tooth row;
- the absence of maxillary 1st molar with one or two sides;
- the loss of more than 4 front teeth;
- the lack of chewing teeth;
- severe forms of periodontitis in which there is displacement of teeth in maxillary arch.
A prerequisite for carrying out this type of prosthesis is the preservation in the upper jaw at least 5 teeth.
This is necessary for reliable fixation of orthopedic structures, and a uniform redistribution of load on the teeth that occurs when chewing. Also the abutment teeth for signs of periodontal disease must be pre-treated because wearing dentures can contribute to the exacerbation of the inflammatory process.
A removable partial denture is strictly prohibited to identify patients in the following clinical situations:
- pathological dental abrasion, which resulted in the observed shortening in the coronal part of the bone formation needed to support a prosthesis;
- acute period of development of any somatic diseases;
- deep bite;
- the period of pregnancy and lactation;
- the need for radiation therapy.
- different mental disorders;
- individual intolerance to the materials used for the prosthesis;
- drug addiction.
In each of these situations the use of non-fixed orthopedic structures can pose a threat not only to health but also the life of the patient.
The types of clasp designs
Curved dentures are fixed on the supporting bone formations by means of special fasteners:
- telescopic crowns.
Last option is fixing at the moment does not have wide acceptance in orthopedic practice, because it needs a relatively long preconditioning of the dentition. This dental method of fixing provides for the closure of the abutment teeth metal crowns, which will dress up denture. In the aesthetic respect of such anchoring abutments in the oral cavity is the most natural, however, a significant disadvantage is its high cost compared to other types of skeletal structures.
Kamernye curved prostheses
The most common method of fixation of skeletal structures is to consolidate them on the abutment teeth by means of special hooks. Through this it is possible to achieve not only a secure placement of the prosthesis in the oral cavity, but also to reduce the intensity of masticatory load on your own tooth of the patient – 2/3 it is necessary in this case on the gum. A significant disadvantage of using kemmerich curved structures is the hit of the fastener in the smile zone in the case of fastening on the premolars. This significantly decreases the aesthetics of the prosthesis.
Depending on the objectives pursued clasp dentures hooks may be of the following form:
The difference between these two types of constructions lies in the nature of the redistribution of masticatory load on the gums and/or abutment teeth.
If the teeth that will be fixed in a subsequent prosthesis, are healthy, pre-preparation – grinding and nakryvanie crowns are not required. If coronal part of the supporting tooth is severely ruined, or in the region of its roots there are even slight signs of the inflammatory process, it is necessary to spend sanitation of the oral cavity and the tooth to protect from further destruction the crown.
Castle arched dentures
Equipment dentures special locks (attachment) allows to achieve the patient’s high esthetic dentition. Fasteners in this embodiment, the prosthesis is not noticeable from the outside, as are the supporting palatal side of the tooth. This requires prior preparation of the teeth needed to grind and cover with metal-ceramic crown, which is one of the components attachmen. The second part is fixed on the basis of the structure in such a way that when dressing the prosthesis snaps of the castle.
Disadvantages of application of these skeletal structures:
- the relative complexity of the manufacturing technology of the prosthesis;
- higher cost in comparison with kamernyj structures;
- the need to deponirovanie and strong grinding of the crown of the abutment teeth for the subsequent installation of metal-ceramic crowns.
Rules for the care of arcuate removable constructions
Period of operation partial denture is 7-10 years. To eliminate the threat of development of inflammatory reaction on the mucous membranes, with the use of partially removable structures must comply with the following rules of hygiene of the oral cavity:
- The prosthesis must be 2 times a day to remove and carry out mechanical cleaning with a toothbrush and toothpaste. It is unacceptable to use for processing harsh chemicals (baking soda, citric acid and others) and to avoid exposure to hot water, as adverse external shocks in this case greatly reduces the life of the structure.
- After each meal you should rinse the denture clean water.
- Try to avoid dropping dentures on a hard surface.
To date, the correction of defects of the dentition with the manufacture and application of various types of curved structures is the most appropriate and affordable for the masses of the population.
The technical characteristics of such prostheses significantly reduce the risk of discomfort when using them. In the adaptation period the patient may present symptoms such as the diction and chewing, the presence of pain in the areas of contact of structural elements with soft tissues of the oral cavity.
For the early habituation to bugel prosthesis dentists, podiatrists recommend that the adaptation period should be read out loud, pronounce tongue twisters with hissing sounds. If there is significant discomfort in the early days you can use the prosthesis for a few hours a day gradually increasing the wearing time. It should be remembered that such problems are only of a temporary nature and will be held during the first two weeks.