Classification of tooth decay: types of decay

Classification of dental caries is important in the treatment of this disease. With proper identification of the environment of the disease you can pick up effective treatment. The defeat of teeth caries is the most common disease of the world population. Apply in any climate, which affects all age groups.

Causes symptoms of tooth decay

The disease has a pathological origin. Occurs after eruption, entails a softening and destruction of the hard cover teeth. In the future, there cavity.

Experts adhere to such causes as:

  • eating large amounts of sweet or salty foods;
  • insufficient content in vitamins and carbohydrates;
  • a small content of fluoride in toothpastes;
  • the lack of oral hygiene;
  • the presence of infectious diseases;
  • inherited genetic indicators;
  • the specific structure of the jaw, where the tooth has brostoski.

The factors are related to changes in acid-base balance of the mouth. This creates a favorable environment for the development of pathological bacteria. Because of this, there is a leaching of calcium from the enamel and appear carious cavity type. Therefore, a large number of classifications of dental caries. The use of multiple sources of origin of disease will provide an opportunity to deliver the most accurate diagnosis. Is determined by the degree of damage and methods of treatment of the disease.

Classification of the disease

The dentists there is no specific opinions about the classification of caries. When acknowledging a specific type of lesion, using the notation of several classification criteria. Such a principle will give an opportunity to supply correct and complete diagnosis.

Distinguish between classification by the who, the depth of destruction, black for the activity of manifestation, by type of flow, according to the lesion. It is necessary to consider childhood caries as a separate species.

Classification according to the who

The world Health Organization defines cavities based on the specific patient’s tooth. To indicate the used codes.
Who classification at MBK:

K02.0. The initial phase of destruction, when the white spots on the surface.
K02.1. Lose tissue dentin, which is underneath the enamel.
K02.2. Putrid lesions of the cement when the damaged tooth root.
K02.3. At this stage, the destruction of the cement ceases.
K02.4. This code represent melanogenesis, odontoceti and melanodermia in children.
K02.5. It includes other lesions of the jaw, described in the previous codes.

The classification criterion according to the International classification of diseases (ICD) is the most popular in modern dentistry. It is the easy availability of items for designation of the disease.

Classification by depth of lesion

This classification describes how much damage. Does the destruction of the root of the tooth or destroyed the enamel. Experts identify the following types of caries:

  1. the formation of spots. At this moment occurs the anatomical destruction of the enamel, it feel smooth and undamaged. But on the tooth surface appears light or dark stain color. Noticeable no pain;
  2. on the surface (surface). This is the second stage. The destruction comes the enamel layer, but the dentin is healthy. Appear torque and pain in contact with cold, hot, spicy, sweet or sour. The place of infection becomes rough;
  3. average. At this stage there is destruction of not only enamel but also dentin. Pain have periodic and constant type;
  4. deep. The final stage in which there is a deep lose. In which there is only a thin layer of dentin.
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To avoid the destruction of the tooth, it is necessary at the first stage to take action. Otherwise, the decay of the first species reaches stage 4 classification and this will lead to an almost complete defeat.

Classification by the intensity of lesion

Intensity of lesions of the oral cavity there are two types of the disease: single and multiple cavities. The first type is destroyed one tooth. When multiple suffers a few together.

The regularity that carriers multiple cavities are patients with diseases of the heart and blood vessels. If we talk about children, infection vulnerable children, ill with scarlet fever or tonsillitis.

Classification by type of flow

Caries may develop rapidly, or start and stop. Therefore, we can identify three types of dental caries based on severity of the leak.

  1. Injury tooth decay spreads very slowly or not progressing. The patient feels no discomfort because the lesions partially. At observance of rules of personal hygiene and the timely prevention of this type of caries can be stopped at early stages.
  2. Subcompensated caries is characterized by a continuation of the development. But he is asymptomatic and disturbs the person. A long time may go unnoticed.
  3. Decompensated or severe tooth decay causes rapid destruction, accompanied by intense and acute pain. Manifest other symptoms of the disease, the patient becomes incapacitated. Treatment should proceed without delay.

If people noticed the presence of acute dental caries, it is necessary in the short term to take measures on restoration of the tooth. Otherwise, the disease will spread to neighboring enamel. Perhaps the development of pulpitis and periodontitis.

Classification black

This classification of dental caries was put forward in 1896. Goal was to determine standards of treatment for each clinical case separately.

Lose is divided into six classes:

  • first class. This includes the destruction of the pits, fissures and natural depressions at posterior teeth. Such cavities are called fissures;
  • second class. It relates to the defeat at the place of contact of premolars and molars;
  • third grade. This includes the destruction, where the contact of the canines and incisors. Moreover, the cutting edges remain unaffected;
  • fourth grade. This includes substantial loss of the canines and incisors. Cutting edge loses its integrity;
  • fifth grade. The disease affects the vestibular surface of the teeth in General. Called cervical caries;
  • sixth grade. Refers to damage to the cusps of a molar tooth and sharp edges of the incisors and canines.
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For all these classification groups used certain methods of treatment and dental fillings. This classification of teeth came to this time unchanged.

Classification by site of lesion

This classification determines the localization of caries. In some places there is a loss. It is known that pathogenic point can be formed on all teeth in contact of some, in natural cavities or irregularities of the enamel, the roots.

There are five types of caries:

  1. occlusal (visory). Lesions localized in the cavities of natural origin. Affects the chewing surface of the teeth;
  2. maisonny (aproximally). Appears on the surface of the tooth, where the contact with others. This kind of for a long time are not found, because the destruction goes to the center and the cavity remains covered with enamel;
  3. the cervical (cervical). Located between the crown of the tooth and root. Appears as a result of poor oral hygiene;
  4. ring (circular). Appears on the circle teeth. Looks brown or yellow zone is located on the neck of the tooth. This species is more common in children;
  5. hidden. Affects the part that is hard to read.

Detection of some types of caries using an x-ray. Treatment should be carried out in a short time, to avoid a complete loss of the tooth.

Tooth decay wisdom teeth

Despite the fact that wisdom teeth erupt later than the other, they are more susceptible to various diseases. The risk of spots large enough. Classification is identical with the other, but treated the tooth in any other way.

If there is no tooth — antagonist (to ensure the bite and located on the opposite side), in the formation of caries, the tooth is simply removed. If there are some factors, the treatment is the same as for other teeth.

Caries at the time of wearing braces


If the patient wears braces, he is at high risk of caries. This is due to the structure design, which retains the food particles. The oral hygiene is greatly reduced. In places where the rest of the food appear bacteria. They alter the acid-alkaline balance of the mouth.

The owner of the braces is forced to implement special measures to maintain cleanliness in your mouth. In common parlance should be: toothpaste and floss, sanitizing solutions. After a meal and neutralization of microbes, it is necessary to abandon snacking. Otherwise, to avoid the formation of caries.

Childhood caries

Tooth decay affects children’s teeth, divided according to the same criteria as in adults. The only difference is the division of disease primary and permanent teeth.
I can’t say that caries of deciduous teeth brings a little discomfort, than regular. At a young age the disease manifests itself more often than average and old. To prevent the destruction, it is necessary to accustom the child to proper oral hygiene from an early age. Should limit the use of sweet food. Milk teeth are treated a little differently than persistent.

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The procedure of silver plating of deciduous teeth is carried out for prevention and treatment in the early stages of the disease. A simple word, freezing the infection. Child any discomfort does not feel. Composition with elements of silver is applied on the enamel with a cotton swab. The silver forms a protection in the form of a film from the negative effects of microbes.
Parents need to take seriously the health of the oral cavity of their child. For this you need to visit the dentist in the dynamics. The doctor will teach the parents how to properly brush teeth and, in the presence of Tartar, produce a professional cleaning.

Prevention of dental caries

Which would mean not treated caries, it must be treated immediately. The correct treatment is prescribed only dentist. You need to stop the resolution in the initial stages, to avoid losing teeth in the future. Tooth decay but it is better to prevent than to cure.
There are a few recommendations to prevent this disease:

  • teeth brushing should be performed twice a day: after Breakfast and before bedtime;
  • eliminate night snacking;
  • to use a thread designed for cleaning hard to reach tooth areas;
  • after each meal rinse your mouth, it can be purchased or home-made solutions;
  • to reduce the consumption of sweets.

You need to diversify your diet of solid food. She promotes self-cleaning of the mouth cavity and massage gums. Take vitamins and eat more foods containing fluorine, phosphorus and calcium. Assign which strictly needs a specialist.
By following these recommendations you can significantly reduce the risk of tooth decay. Prevention reduces the risk of the disease by 95 percent. But remember, each person is different and these rules are better to be combined with a visit to the dentist.